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来源:度排名健康家园    发布时间:2018年02月21日 22:54:27    编辑:admin         

GUILDFORD, England — On the outskirts of this sleepy commuter town just south of London, plans are underway to build the fastest cellphone network in the world.英格兰吉尔福德——在这座伦敦南缘的宁静通勤小镇的郊区,打造世界上最快的手机网络的计划正在进行中。The work is being done at the University of Surrey, where a leafy campus is dotted with rundown Brutalist-style buildings. Here, researchers and some of the world’s biggest tech companies, including Samsung and Fujitsu, are collaborating to offer mobile Internet speeds more than 100 times faster than anything now available.这项工作在萨里大学(University of Surrey)展开。它那浓荫密布的校园里,点缀着一些粗野主义风格的老旧建筑。在这里,研究人员和包括三星(Samsung)、富士通(Fujitsu)在内的世界上最大的一些科技公司,正在合作研发一种新的手机网络,其速度会比现有的所有手机网络快上百倍。Their work on so-called fifth-generation, or 5G, wireless technology is set to be completed in early 2018 and would, for example, let students download entire movies to smartphones or tablets in less than five seconds, compared with as much as eight minutes with current fourth-generation, or 4G, technology. Companies also could connect millions of devices — including smartwatches and tiny sensors on home appliances — to the new cellphone network, and automakers could potentially test driverless cars around the suburban campus.他们进行的有关第五代无线技术——或称为5G——的研发工作,计划于2018年初完成。它将能让学生们在五秒钟内将整部影片下载到智能手机或平板电脑上,而用目前的第四代——即4G——网络下载一部影片,则需要八分钟。企业可以将包括智能手表、家用电器上的微型传感器在内的无数种设备与新一代手机网络相连,汽车厂商或许也可以在这座位于郊区的大学校园里测试无人驾驶车。“A lot of the technology aly works in a laboratory environment,” said Rahim Tafazolli, director of the university’s research center that oversees the 5G project, which includes almost 70 powerful radio antennas around the two-square-mile campus. “Now, we have to prove it works in real life.”“有很多技术已经可以在实验室环境下实现,”萨里大学5G项目研究中心的主任拉希姆·塔法佐利(Rahim Tafazolli)说。这个项目在面积2平方英里的校园各处布置了将近70个功率强大的无线电天线。“现在,我们必须明它在现实生活中也一样有效。”The work by Dr. Tafazolli and his team puts them at the heart of a heated race. Fueled by people’s insatiable appetite for accessing s, social media and other entertainment on their mobile devices, many of the world’s largest carriers, like ATamp;T and NTT DoCoMo of Japan, are rushing to be the first to offer customers this next-generation ultrafast wireless technology.塔法佐利及其团队的工作,让他们处在了一场激烈竞赛的中心。人们对接入视频、社交媒体和其他内容的需求巨大。受其鼓舞,全球很多排名靠前的运营商,包括ATamp;T和日本的NTT都科(NTT DoCoMo),都急于成为第一家向顾客提供下一代超快无线技术的公司。The competition has led to research worth billions of dollars from telecommunications equipment makers like Ericsson of Sweden and Huawei of China, which are hoping to secure lucrative contracts to upgrade the mobile Internet infrastructure of operators like ATamp;T from the ed States and China Mobile in Asia. Those plans have become even faster paced as tech giants including Google consider their own ambitions for the latest, and fastest, high-speed Internet.这场竞争促使瑞典爱立信(Ericsson)和中国华为等电信设备生产商投入数十亿美元进行研发。它们希望拿到ATamp;T和中国移动等亚洲运营商的移动互联网基础设施升级订单,获取丰厚利润。随着包括谷歌(Google)在内的科技巨头开始考虑自己在最新、最快的高速互联网领域的宏图,这些计划的进展速度变得更快了。“Everyone is rushing to demonstrate they are a leading player for 5G,” said Bengt Nordstrom, co-founder of Northstream, a telecom consulting firm, in Stockholm.“人人都急着想明自己是5G的领导者,”斯德哥尔电信行业咨询公司Northstream联合创始人本特·努德斯特伦(Bengt Nordstrom)说。The efforts around 5G will be on display at Mobile World Congress, a four-day tech and telecom event in Barcelona that begins on Monday. Most of the world’s largest operators and device makers like Samsung are expected to announce their latest wireless technology, including smartphones, wearable products and digital applications at the trade show.周一,科技和电信业盛事世界移动通信大会(Mobile World Congress)将在巴塞罗那开幕。围绕5G展开的行动将在为期四天的大会上亮相。全球最大的运营商及三星这样的设备生产商中,预计大部分都会在这场行业大会上宣布自己最新的无线技术,包括智能手机、可穿戴产品和数字应用。Not to be outdone, telecom manufacturers also have announced glitzy demonstrations — including driverless cars, remote-controlled drones and autonomous robots balancing balls on tablets — to showcase their 5G credibility. The need to persuade carriers to buy the latest wireless technology has become ever more important as operators consider cutting investment plans in the face of a global economic downturn.为了不被甩在身后,电信制造商也推出了一些耀眼的产品展示,包括无人驾驶车、遥控无人机和能在平板电脑上让几个球保持平衡的自主机器人,以展示自己的5G实力。在面临全球经济下行的运营商考虑削减投资计划之际,电信制造商需要说它们,让它们相信最新的无线技术现在具有空前的重要性。“If we miss the chance to make our networks relevant, it will be a disaster,” said Ulf Ewaldsson, Ericsson’s chief technology officer. “The billion-dollar question is what will a 5G network look like?”“如果错过让我们的网络参与进来的机会,就是一场灾难,”爱立信首席技术官艾华信(Ulf Ewaldsson)说。“这里面一个最重要的问题是,5G网络会是什么样子?”Despite companies’ efforts to outspend each other, that question remains unanswered.尽管各公司的投资力度一个更胜一个,但这个问题依然没有。A global standard for 5G wireless technology will not be finished before 2019, at the earliest. Companies worldwide must agree on how their networks talk to each other, so users’ mobile connections do not become patchy when traveling overseas. That involves lengthy negotiations over what type of radio waves the new technology should use, among other complicated global agreements, which can take years.5G无线技术的全球标准至少要到2019年才能完成。世界范围内的公司必须就彼此的网络之间如何衔接沟通达成一致,这样用户在国外时,他们的移动通讯才不会变得时好时坏。这就涉及新技术应该使用何种无线电波,以及其他复杂的全球协议进行漫长的谈判。这个过程可能要花数年时间。As a result, carriers, telecom equipment makers and tech companies are lobbying global-standard bodies and national lawmakers to promote their own technologies over rivals’, according to industry executives and telecom analysts. Because of this jockeying, a widesp rollout of 5G networks is not expected until well into the next decade.因此,据行业高管和电信业分析人士称,运营商、电信设备生产商和科技公司正在游说制定全球标准的机构和各国议员,告诉他们自己的技术比对手的好。因为存在这种争夺,5G网络的广泛铺开预计要等到下一个10年。Some analysts question why carriers are focusing on the next generation of wireless technology when many parts of the world, particularly in emerging markets, still suffer from achingly slow mobile Internet access. And industry experts say mobile Internet speeds in much of the developed world, especially in places like South Korea, where connections are often comparable to traditional broadband, aly meet people’s needs.一些分析人士质疑,为什么在世界上很多地方,特别是在新兴市场的移动互联网接入还极其缓慢时,运营商却把焦点放在了下一代无线技术上。行业专家称,在很多发达国家,特别是在连接速度通常堪比传统宽带的韩国等地,移动互联网速度已经能满足人们的需求了。“A lot of this is about carriers and equipment makers looking for new ways to make money,” said Thomas Husson, an analyst at Forrester Research in Paris. “Consumers shouldn’t expect great things until after 2020.”“这在很大程度上是因为运营商和设备生产商在寻找赚钱的新途径,”弗雷斯特研究公司(Forrester Research)驻巴黎的分析师汤玛斯·赫森(Thomas Husson)说。“2020年之前,消费者不应该期待有什么伟大的技术出现。”These challenges have not stopped companies from staking a claim in hopes of being at the forefront of 5G.这些挑战没能阻止各家公司纷纷押注,以期能让自己身处5G市场的前沿。That is particularly true ahead of major global sporting events like the Olympics and the World Cup, at which carriers and national governments want to promote their technological know-how. At the 2018 World Cup, which will be held in Russia, for instance, the local operators MegaFon and MTS are expected to test 5G-style services, including ultrafast mobile Internet, even without global standards in place.在奥林匹克运动会和世界杯等全球大型体育赛事到来之前尤其如此,运营商和各国政府都想在这些赛事上宣传自己的技术能力。比如,在将于俄罗斯举行的2018年世界杯上,当地运营商MegaFon和MTS计划推出包括超快移动互联网在内的5G类务,尽管相关的全球标准还未确立。The Korean mobile operator KT also plans to offer its own version of 5G technology at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and NTT DoCoMo has said it will have similar trials y for the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.韩国移动运营商KT也计划在韩国平昌举办的2018年冬季奥运会上提供自家版本的5G技术,而日本电信公司NTT DoCoMo则表示,它也会做好准备,在2020年于东京举办的夏季奥运会上进行类似的尝试。“The only way of learning is by doing,” said Mats Svardh, head of networks at the Scandinavian carrier TeliaSonera, which will test its own 5G technology in both Stockholm and Tallinn, Estonia, in 2018. “It’s about putting pressure on ourselves to move forward with specifics, not just theories.”“学习的唯一方式就是上手做,”北欧电信运营商TeliaSonera的网络业务负责人马茨·斯韦德(Mats Svardh)说。该公司将于2018年在斯德哥尔和爱沙尼亚的塔林两地测试其5G技术。“这其实是给我们自己施压,以便在一些具体的问题上取得进展,而不只是在理论上。”ed States carriers have also jumped on the 5G bandwagon, partly to offer people new services as current mobile speeds have become relatively interchangeable between major operators nationwide.美国运营商也加入了这场5G风潮,部分原因是想给人们提供新务,因为美国几家主要运营商目前提供的移动网络的网速已经差别不大,可以互相替代。Last year, Verizon Wireless announced that it would start testing new wireless technology in 2016 in order to offer new services, including potentially ultrafast mobile Internet, sometime next year. Last month, ATamp;T countered with its own tests — expected to start in Austin, Tex., by the end of 2016 — that could offer mobile speeds roughly 100 times faster than its current offering.“We will be y when it’s y,” said John Donovan, ATamp;T’s chief strategy officer, who added that traditional rivals like Verizon and new arrivals like Google could eventually compete to offer 5G services. “Everywhere you don’t solve a problem, someone else might step in.”去年,威瑞森无线(Verizon Wireless)宣布,它将在2016年开始测试新的无线技术,以便在明年某个时候提供可能包括超快移动互联网在内的新务。上个月,作为反击,ATamp;T也提出,自己计划于2016年底在德克萨斯州奥斯丁开始进行测试,有望提供比现在的网速快大约100倍的移动网络。“等它好的时候,我们就会一切就绪,”ATamp;T首席战略官约翰·多诺万(John Donovan)说。他还表示,威瑞森这样的传统竞争对手和谷歌这样的新对手,最终都有可能参与5G务的竞争。“不管是在哪个领域,只要有个问题你不解决,别人可能就会进来做。”For Dr. Tafazolli, of the University of Surrey, whose team started working on 5G in late 2011, these battles have led to an increasing number of companies offering support — including the use of high-speed computer servers, costly radio antennas and millions of dollars of financing to research and build the next-generation wireless network on his college campus, he said. Their primary goal: to test their latest technology in a real-world setting.萨里大学的塔法佐利自2011年末开始带领团队进行5G技术研发。他表示,这些竞争促使越来越多的企业为他们提供持,包括高速务器、价格昂贵的无线电天线,以及大把的资金,让他们可以在这所大学校园里研究和打造下一代无线网络。他们目前的首要目标是:在真实场景里测试他们的最新技术。“In the race to 5G, everyone wants to be first,” he said.“在5G技术这场比赛中,每个人都想拔得头筹,”他说。 /201602/428252。

Guangzhou’s municipal government is planning to launch its own Uber-like online taxi hire service, only weeks after police closed the San Francisco-based transport app’s office in the southern Chinese city.广州市政府计划推出一个与优步(Uber)类似的在线约租车平台,就在几周前,警方关闭了这家总部位于旧金山的专车应用在广州的办事处。The new company, Ruyue (meaning “by appointment”), will offer rides to customers using a smartphone app. However, the journeys will be provided by the four taxi companies with licences to operate in Guangzhou, which had faced competition from Uber before it was shut.新公司“如约”将利用智能手机应用向顾客提供用车务。然而,这项务将由广州4家拥有出租车牌照的出租车公司提供,在优步被关闭之前,这些出租车公司面临来自优步的竞争。The timing of Ruyue’s looming launch — weeks after Uber was taken out by a police raid — has raised questions about the city’s commitment to a level playing field.如约即将推出的时机在优步被警方突击搜查并取缔几周后,这引发了有关广州对于创建公平竞争环境这一承诺的疑问。“It is hard to say for sure whether the crackdown against Uber in Guangzhou was directly related to this new app, but I think it is natural to make the connection,” said Zhang Yi, head of iMedia, an internet consultancy in Guangzhou. “It appears the intention was to clear the scene for the new government-run app.”“很难说广州针对优步的打击与这款新应用直接相关,但我认为,人们会很自然的把二者联系在一起,”广州互联网咨询公司艾媒咨询(iMedia)首席执行官张毅表示,“其用意似乎是为这款新的由政府管理的应用软件扫清道路。”State-run companies that dominate many sectors in the Chinese economy face pressure from nimble internet companies that can disrupt inefficient markets such as transport and financial services.主导中国经济很多领域的国有企业正面临来自灵活的互联网企业的竞争,后者可能会搅乱交通和金融务等低效率市场。However, taxi hire apps — both Chinese and foreign — face attention from law enforcement agencies in many Chinese cities due to prohibitions on unlicensed taxi operation.然而,由于禁止无出租车业务,中国国内外的打车应用引起了中国很多城市执法机构的注意。Additional reporting by Ma FangjingMa Fangjing补充报道 /201505/377163。

Samsung Electronics has replaced the head of its mobile business for the first time in six years, as it seeks to reverse a recent trend of falling smartphone sales.三星电子(Samsung Electronics)六年来头一次更换其移动业务部门主管,试图逆转近期智能手机销量的下跌势头。Shin Jong-Kyun, who fostered the successful Galaxy smartphone series as Samsung’s head of mobile communications from 2009, will hand the mantle to Koh Dong-jin, head of mobile research and development, the company said on Tuesday.作为2009年以来的三星移动通信部门主管,申宗均(Shin Jong-kyun)曾在其任内推出了极为成功的Galaxy系列智能手机。周二,三星表示申宗均将把这一重任交给移动研发部门主管Koh Dong-jin。Mr Shin, 59, will retain his formal position as one of three co-chief executives, to focus on long-term strategy — but he will “step back from day-to-day operations”, Samsung said.三星表示,59岁的申宗均将保留其作为三名联席首席执行官之一的正式职位,以便把主要精力放在长期战略上,不过他将“退出日常运营”。The move follows extensive speculation — beginning in the lead-up to last year’s reshuffle — that Mr Shin would be sidelined in response to setbacks in the mobile division.在三星这一举措前,去年三星的洗牌之前就开始有大量猜测认为,为回应移动部门所遇的挫败,申宗均或将退出该部门。Samsung remains the world’s leading smartphone producer by sales but its handset profits have fallen since the first half of last year, as it lost share to lower-cost Chinese peers at the low end of the market, and a resurgent Apple at the high end.三星依然是全球销量顶尖的智能手机制造商,不过自去年上半年以来,随着其市场份额在低端输给成本较低的中国对手,高端输给再次崛起的苹果(Apple),其手机盈利已经滑落下来。“In the context of Samsung’s culture, somebody has to be held responsible,” said Daniel Kim, an analyst at Macquarie. “I expected him to resign last year, actually, but he stayed another year and the handset division is still not showing any meaningful sign of improvement.”麦格理(Macquarie)分析师丹尼尔金(Daniel Kim)表示:“按照三星的企业文化,必须由某个人承担责任。事实上,我本来预计他去年会辞职,然而他却又呆了一年,手机部门仍未显示出任何改善的明显迹象。”Mr Shin’s retention as co-chief executive seemed a “mark of respect for his contribution in the past”, Mr Kim said, calling his move “one step towards retirement”.丹尼尔金表示,申宗均留任首席执行官似乎是“表示对其过去贡献的尊重”,并称他的这一变动“离退休更近了一步”。The Galaxy series achieved huge market success from 2011 onwards, spearheading Samsung’s rise to become the world’s leading smartphone maker. But as competition intensified last year, the bloated portfolio of products that cost more than those of Asian rivals failed to attract consumers.2011年以来,Galaxy系列智能手机取得了巨大的市场成功,引领三星崛起为全球头号智能手机制造商。然而随着去年竞争加剧,臃肿的产品组合导致成本高于其亚洲对手,不能吸引客户。This year’s Galaxy S6 flagship won enthusiastic reviews but sales undershot targets.今年推出的Galaxy S6旗舰手机赢得了热情洋溢的评价,销量却未能达到目标。 /201512/413506。

It’s a big universe, but it’s full of small planets.这是一个很大的宇宙,但却充满了小型的行星。A group of astronomers led by Guillermo Torres of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced on Tuesday that they had found eight new planets orbiting their stars at distances compatible with liquid water, bringing the total number of potentially habitable “Goldilocks planets” to a few dozen, depending on how the habitable zone is defined.周二,以哈佛-史密森尼天体物理中心(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)的吉耶尔莫·托里斯(Guillermo Torres)为首的一组天文学者宣布,他们新发现有八颗行星在容许液态水存在的距离围绕它们的恒星运行。这样一来,可能适宜居住的“适居带(Goldilocks)行星”的总数就上升到了数十颗。当然,这还取决于如何定义适居带。NASA’s Kepler spacecraft, now in its fifth year of seeking out the shadows of planets circling other stars, has spotted hundreds, and more and more of these other worlds look a lot like Earth — rocky balls only slightly larger than our own home, that with the right doses of starlight and water could turn out to be veritable gardens of microbial Eden.美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的开普勒(Kepler)太空望远镜目前已进入搜寻围绕其他恒星旋转的行星的阴影的第五年。它已经发现了数百个,以及越来越多与地球十分相似的世界——只比我们的家园地球体积稍大的石球,只要有适量的光和水,就可能会成为名副其实的微生物伊甸园。As the ranks of these planets grow, astronomers are beginning to plan the next step in the quest to end cosmic loneliness, gauging which hold the greatest promise for life and what tools will be needed to learn about them.随着此类行星的数量不断增加,天文学者开始计划相关探索的下一步,测算哪颗行星存在生命的可能性最大,以及了解它们需要什么工具,从而终结我们在宇宙中的孤独感。On Monday another group of astronomers said they had managed to weigh precisely a set of small planets and found that their densities and compositions almost exactly matched those of Earth. Both groups announced their findings at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle.周一,另一组天文学者表示,他们已经成功精确计算出了一系列小行星的重量,发现它们的密度和构成几乎与地球完全一致。这两组天文学者都在西雅图的美国天文学会 (American Astronomical Society)的会议上公布了自己的研究结果。Alluding to the popularity of food shows and cooking apps, Courtney Dressing, also of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, said at a news conference, “I’m going to give you the recipe for a rocky planet.”同样来自哈佛-史密森尼天体物理中心的考特妮·德雷辛(Courtney Dressing)在新闻发布会上借用美食节目和烹饪软件的话说,“我现在要告诉你该如何制作岩态行星。”She began, “Take one cup of magnesium....”她说,“用一杯镁……”Reviewing the history of exoplanets, Debra Fischer, a Yale astronomer, recalled that the first planet found orbiting another sunlike star, a Jupiter-like giant, was discovered 20 years ago. Before that, she recalled, astronomers worried that “maybe the Star Trek picture of the universe was not right, and there is no life anywhere else.”耶鲁大学(Yale)天文学者德布拉·费希尔(Debra Fischer)在回顾系外行星历史时说,第一次发现围绕类似太阳的恒星运行的行星是在20年前。这颗行星很像木星,体积巨大。她回忆道,在那之前,天文学者担心“或许《星际迷航》(Star Trek)中的宇宙景象是不正确的,其他地方根本没有生命”。She termed the progress in the last two decades “incredibly moving.”她表示,过去20年的进步“十分惊人”。So far, Kepler has discovered 4,175 potential planets, and 1,004 of them have been confirmed as real, according to Michele Johnson, a spokeswoman at NASA’s Ames Research Center, which operates Kepler.负责运行开普勒的NASA艾姆斯研究中心(NASA Ames Research Center)的女发言人米歇尔·约翰逊(Michele Johnson)称,迄今,开普勒已经发现了4175颗疑似行星,其中有1004颗已经得到实。Most of them, however, including the new ones announced Tuesday, are hundreds of light-years away, too far for detailed study. We will probably never know any more about these particular planets than we do now, including whether anybody can or does live on them.不过,它们中的大多数,其中包括周二宣布的新发现的行星都距离地球数百光年,因为太远,而不适合进行详细研究。我们对于这些特殊行星的了解,或许永远无法比现在更多,其中包括人们是否能够,以及是否有人在这些行星上生存。“We can count as many as we like,” said Sara Seager, a planet theorist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who was not involved in the new work, “but until we can observe the atmospheres and assess their greenhouse gas power, we don’t really know what the surface temperatures are like.”“我们可以想数出多少就数出多少,”麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology,简称MIT)的行星理论家萨拉·西格(Sara Seager)说,“但在能够观察它们的大气,评定它们的温室气体含量之前,我们无法真正了解它们的地表温度。”她并没有参与这项新研究。Still, she added, “it’s heartening to have such a growing list.”不过,她补充道,“这样的行星越来越多,也很令人鼓舞。”Finding Goldilocks planets closer to home will be the job of TESS, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scheduled to be launched in 2017. But if we want to know what the weather is like on these worlds, whether there is water or even life there, more powerful instruments will be needed.寻找离地球较近的适居带行星将是凌日系外行星勘测人造卫星(Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite,简称TESS)的任务。这种卫星将于2017年发射。但是,如果我们想知道这些行星上的天气状况、上面是否有水乃至生命,还需要更强大的工具。Dr. Seager is heading a NASA study investigating the concept of a starshade, which would float in front of a space telescope and block light from a star so that its much fainter planets would be visible, the way a driver flips down a shade to block the glare of the sun.西格正在负责一项研究遮星板(starshade)概念的NASA研究。这种遮星板将漂浮在太空望远镜前方,遮挡恒星发出的光,这样就能看见它比较暗淡的行星了,就像司机拉下遮阳板挡住刺眼的阳光那样。Another group, led by Karl Stapelfeldt of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, is studying the alternative method known as a coronagraph, in which the occulting disk is inside the telescope.由NASA戈达德航天中心(Goddard Spaceflight Center)的卡尔·斯塔佩尔费尔德特(Karl Stapelfeldt)所带领的另一个小组正在研究被称作日冕仪(coronagraph)另一种办法。根据这种办法,挡板会被放在望远镜里面。Both studies are expected to be completed in the next couple of months, and could affect plans to repurpose a former spy telescope, a clone of sorts of the Hubble, that was bequeathed to NASA three years ago by the National Reconnaissance Office. Astronomers hope to launch it in the early 2020s to study dark energy, under the unwieldy name of Wfirst/Afta.They are planning for now to include a coronagraph to search for exoplanets, according to Paul Schechter of M.I.T., chairman of a design team. Depending on the probe’s orbit, said Dr. Seager, it could be also be made “starshade y.”两项研究都有望在未来几个月内完成,它们可能影响到改变原来的间谍望远镜的使用目的的计划。这种望远镜是对哈勃(Hubble)望远镜的一种复制,三年前由国家侦察局(National Reconnaissance Office)赠送给NASA。天文学者希望能在本世纪20年代初将其发射升空,用来研究暗能量。它有个复杂的名字,叫做宽视场红外巡天望远镜/天体物理学专用资产(Wfirst/Afta)。某设计团队的主席、来自MIT的保罗·谢克特(Paul Schechter)表示,他们目前正计划在上面安装一台日冕仪,用来搜索系外行星。西格说,根据这个探测器的轨道,还可以对它进行调整,使之“能够使用遮星板”。NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, due for a 2018 launch, will have a coronagraph capable of seeing Jupiter-size planets, but it is too late to adapt it to a star shade.NASA的詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜(James Webb Space Telescope)将于2018年发射,它上面也将安装一台能看到木星大小的行星的日冕仪,但现在已经来不及对它进行调整,使它能使用遮星板。Meanwhile, Dr. Seager and Julianne Dalcanton of the University of Washington are writing a separate report for AURA, a consortium of universities that runs observatories. The goal is have a pool of dozens of “exoEarths” to study in order to have any chance of seeing signs of life or understanding terrestrial planets, Dr. Seager said. Amassing them will require a space telescope 10 or 12 meters in diameter (the Webb will be 6.5, and the largest currently on Earth is 10).同时,西格和华盛顿大学(University of Washington)的朱莉安娜·达尔坎顿(Julianne Dalcanton)正分别在为AURA撰写一篇报告。AURA是一个负责天文台运营的大学联盟。西格说,他们是想对数十个“系外地球”(exoEarth)进行研究,看看是否有机会发现生命迹象或了解类地行星。要想积累这么多的行星,需要一台直径为10或12米的太空望远镜(韦伯太空望远镜的直径将为6.5米;目前,地球上直径最大的是10米)。All of this will be grist for the mill at the end of the decade when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences produces its decadal and very influential wish list for astronomy in the 2020s.到这一个10年临近结束、国家科学院(National Academy of Sciences)的工作小组为天文学拟定极有影响力的20年代十年规划时,这一切都将非常有用。 /201501/352911。

Robots will replace a growing number of jobs in industries including automotive and electronics in the next few years, particularly in east Asia, according to new research.一项新研究显示,未来几年,机器人将取代自动化和电子产品等行业越来越多的工作岗位,尤其是在东亚地区。Worldwide sales of industrial robots rose 23 per cent last year and are on course to double by 2018, driving radical change in many manufacturing sectors, Boston Consulting Group said.波士顿咨询集团(G)表示,全球工业机器人销量去年增长23%,到2018年将翻一番,这将令很多制造业领域发生彻底变革。Although robots have been used in industry for decades, recent advances in technology have cut their costs and increased their capabilities, as a new generation of reprogrammable, multipurpose machines comes into service.尽管机器人在工业中的使用已有几十年时间,但最近科技的进步降低了机器人成本并提升了其性能,此际新一代可再编程的多用途机器人正投入使用。The prices of industrial robots have been falling steadily, dropping about 14 per cent in the past four years to 3,000 for a typical system, while capabilities have been expanding.工业机器人的价格一直在稳步下降,过去4年已累计下跌14%左右,至13.3万美元,同时性能一直在提升。Some robots are even cheaper: the Baxter robot from Rethink Robotics has a listed base price of ,000, making it accessible to smaller companies that might have found it difficult to invest in earlier generations.一些机器人的价格甚至更低: Rethink Robotics的Baxter机器人基础定价为2.5万美元,让那些可能很难投资于之前几代机器人的较小公司也能买得起。Five countries — China, the US, Japan, Germany and South Korea — are expected to account for about 80 per cent of investment in industrial robots over the coming decade.预计中国、美国、日本、德国和韩国5国将占到未来10年工业机器人投资的80%左右。Advanced robots are set to cut costs and raise productivity, reducing employment in manufacturing in developed countries, while raising the skill levels demanded of the staff that remain.先进的机器人旨在降低成本并提升生产率,从而减少发达国家制造业就业,同时提高现有员工所需的技能水准。They are also likely to make labour costs a less significant factor for manufacturers making decisions about where to invest.它们还可能会在制造商在做出投资目的地决定时,让劳动力成本的因素不那么重要。About 200,000 industrial robots were shipped last year, G estimates, up from 163,000 in 2013, and in three years#39; time the number could rise to 400,000.G估计,去年工业机器人销量达到20万台左右,高于2013年的16.3万台,到2017年,这一数字可能会升至40万台。In the manufacturing sectors that are the most ily automated, including cars and other transport equipment, computers and electronics and electrical equipment, about 85 per cent of tasks can be performed by robots, according to G.在最容易实现自动化的制造业(包括汽车和其他运输设备、电脑、电子产品和电器设备),约85%的工作可能会由机器人完成。Those sectors are likely to use the most robots over the coming decade, but other areas such as chemicals and metals are also likely to see increasing adoption of the newer, more flexible machines.未来几十年,这些行业使用的机器人可能会最多,但化工和金属等其他行业使用这种更为新颖灵活的机器的做法可能也会越来越多。The uptake of industrial robots will vary between countries as well as between industries, depending on factors including wage costs and labour regulations that could limit employers’ ability to replace workers with robots. G expects the fastest adoption will come in South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, which have heavy concentrations of the industries that are capable of high levels of automation, higher labour costs than some of their low-wage competitors, and limited employment protections that would prevent job cuts.工业机器人的使用情况将会因国家和行业的不同而不同,这取决于很多因素,包括薪资成本以及劳动力监管规定——这些规定可能会限制雇主用机器人取代员工的能力。G预测,韩国、台湾和泰国将是最快使用机器人的国家,这些国家拥有大量能够实现高度自动化的行业,劳动力成本高于一些低薪资竞争国家,而且就业保护有限(就业保护将阻止裁员)。Other relatively rapid adopters are expected to be China, Japan, the US, the UK and Canada.预计其他使用工业机器人相对迅速的国家将是中国、日本、美国、英国和加拿大。The countries likely to be slowest to embrace the new robots include more heavily regulated economies of Europe including France, Italy and Spain, as well as Brazil and India, according to G.G称,最慢接纳新一代机器人的国家可能是那些欧洲监管较严的经济体,包括法国、意大利和西班牙等,还有巴西和印度。 /201502/359373。