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桦甸市检查妇科病哪家医院最好的飞排名指定医院

2017年10月20日 14:47:23 | 作者:飞度管家搜病网 | 来源:新华社
A Chinese woman who was born without a vagina reportedly underwent surgery yesterday to have a man-made genital organ made.据报道,一位天生没有阴道的华裔女子昨天进行手术,植入人造生殖器官。She hoped the surgery could allow her to finally start dating and eventually have her own family.她希望手术后有人约会,并最终建立起自己的家庭。Surgeons from north-west China#39;s Shaanxi Province took a section of the patient#39;s small intestine and used it to make her a vagina.来自中国西北陕西省的外科医生把病人一段小肠切下,以此制成她的阴道。Rokitansky Syndrome or MRKH (Mayer Rokitansky Küster Hauser) is a congenital abnormality characterised by the absence of the vagina womb and cervix.罗基坦斯基综合征或MRKH (Mayer Rokitansky Küster Hauser) 是一种没有阴道、子宫和子宫颈的先天性异常。Women suffering from the condition will have normally functioning ovaries so will experience the normal signs of puberty - but will not have periods or be able to conceive.患有这种病的女性有正常的卵巢,因此有正常的青春期,但没有月经周期,也无法怀。The external genatalia are completely normal which is why MRKH isn#39;t usually discovered until women are in their teenage years.外阴部是完全正常的,所以这种综合征通常只有在女性青春期时才被发现。Many women are able to create a vaginal canal using dilation treatment which uses cylinder shaped dilators of different sizes to stretch the muscles.很多患这种症状的女性无法通过扩张治疗来创造一个阴道腔,这种治疗方法指的是用不同尺寸的圆筒状扩张器来伸展肌肉。Following treatment women are able to have intercourse and can have their eggs removed and fertilised to be used in surrogacy.但是如果这个手术不成功,将进行阴道拉伸手术。A doctor claimed that only two similar operations had been carried out in the world to treat patients with the same condition.治疗后妇女能够性交,并且能够将她们的卵子取出受精供。A nurse checked the patient known as Zhang who has undergone the pioneering surgery一名医生声称,用类似的手术治疗此类病人,全世界只进行过两次。 /201702/493099On a fall evening in a fluorescent-lit classroom at Tsinghua University in Beijing, a dozen students listened intently. The speaker, Emma Gao, held a glass to the light and asked them to study the swirling liquid inside. Tsinghua is known as the “M.I.T. of China,” but this was no freshman seminar in fluid mechanics. It was a gathering of the student wine club.一个秋天的晚上,北京清华大学一个带日光灯照明的房间里,十几个学生正认真地听着讲座。发言者高源(Emma Gao)把一只玻璃杯迎向光线,让学生们仔细观察杯中打旋的液体。清华大学素有“中国的麻省理工学院”之称,但眼前并不是一年级新生的流体力学课,而是学生葡萄酒俱乐部的活动。Ms. Gao, a diminutive woman with a quick smile, was conducting a tasting of recent vintages from her family-run winery in Ningxia, a remote Chinese region on the edge of the Gobi Desert. Behind desktops lined with glasses, the students sniffed and sipped, comparing a fruity red with a richer, oakier French-style wine.高女士个子不高,笑容干脆,这些酒产自她家族经营的葡萄酒庄。酒庄位于戈壁沙漠边远的宁夏,一个中国偏远的省份,此时她组织学生们品尝的,正是她家酒庄里近期出产的葡萄酒。桌子后面放着一排玻璃杯,学生们轻嗅、小口品尝,对比一种果香红酒与另一种味道更浓郁,带有橡木清香的法国式葡萄酒。Since her winery has begun to win international acclaim, Ms. Gao, who is 38, has emerged as the unlikely new star of an even more unlikely new Chinese industry. The winery, Silver Heights, has been a pioneer in China, bringing sophisticated Western winemaking techniques to what had been an industry focused on bulk production.高女士今年38岁,她的酒厂已经开始赢得国际声誉,因此她也成了是这个看似不可思议的中国新产业当中一颗不可思议的新星。她的酒庄“银色高地”是中国葡萄酒业的先驱,把精密成熟的西方酿酒技术带入了中国酿酒业这个关注大批量生产的产业。Taking a cue from that boutique-winery model, Ningxia has ambitions to become the Napa Valley of China. Local winemakers have won prestigious awards, and plans are underway to double the region’s vineyards and create a wine tourism hub. Foreign investors have also taken notice. The French Champagne maker amp; Chandon makes sparkling wines there, while the spirits giant Pernod Ricard is spending heavily to modernize its local winery.宁夏受精品酿酒业模式启发,想把自己打造成中国的纳帕谷(Napa Valley)。当地酿酒厂已经获得了不少著名大奖,此外将当地酒庄数目翻倍,打造葡萄酒旅游中心的方案也在酝酿之中。外国投资者亦注意到了此地。法国香槟制造者酩悦( amp; Chandon)公司在这里生产起泡酒,烈性酒巨头保乐力加(Pernod Ricard)也投下巨额资金,为公司在当地的酒厂打造现代化设施。“People know Napa makes the best wines in America and Bordeaux makes the best wines in France,” says Hao Linhai, a top regional official who oversees the industry. “When they think of Chinese wines, we want them to think of Ningxia.”“人们知道美国最好的葡萄酒产自纳帕,法国最好的葡萄酒产自波尔多,”当地负责酒业的最高官员郝林海说。“我们希望人们一提起中国葡萄酒,就能想到宁夏。”While China is better known for fiery, 100-proof baijiu than prized vintages, its fast-growing middle class is increasingly demanding Western delights. And that includes fine wine.不过中国更有名的还要算是酒精在50%含量的烈性白酒,而不是昂贵的葡萄酒,但如今中国飞速发展的中产阶级也在日益追求西方享受。包括精致的葡萄酒。Chinese drinkers quaffed more than 1.5 billion bottles of red wine in 2014, double the level of 2008, according to IWSR, a research firm based in London. Over all, China ranks fourth in red wine consumption, behind France, the ed States and Italy. Wine production in the country has surged to meet that demand. From virtually nothing in the early 1980s, it is now the world’s seventh-largest winemaker.根据伦敦调查公司IWSR的数据,2014年,中国饮酒者消费了超过15亿瓶的红酒,比2008年增加了一倍。中国的红酒总消费位居全球第四,仅次于法国、美国和意大利。为了满足需求,中国的葡萄酒产量也在上升。20世纪80年代初,中国的葡萄酒产量接近于零,如今已经是世界第七的葡萄酒生产国。Aided by the same long-range planning and government support that have brought success in everything from textiles to high-end electronics, China made 120 million cases of wine in 2014. That’s a bit less than a third of what is produced in the ed States, and just behind the export powerhouses Australia and Argentina.从纺织业到高端电子工业,中国的许多产业都受惠于长期计划与政府持,葡萄酒产业亦是如此,2014年,中国的葡萄酒产量达到1.2亿箱。比美国葡萄酒产量的1/3低一点,略低于澳大利亚和阿根廷两个出口大国。But Chinese wine is made almost exclusively for the domestic market, says Ma Huiqin, a professor at China Agricultural University in Beijing who works closely with Ningxia’s wine industry. And until recently, most of it was barely drinkable by Western standards, produced by giant industrial winemakers.但是,中国的葡萄酒主要是供给国内市场的,位于北京的中国农业大学教授马慧琴说,她与宁夏的葡萄酒产业保持着密切合作。直到前不久,中国的大部分葡萄酒还是由大型工业化酒厂生产,很难达到西方的饮用标准。Now a new generation of Chinese winemakers is trying to upgrade quality in an effort to win over local wine drinkers as their tastes become more discerning, as well as capture the aficionados who drink mostly imports from France, America and elsewhere. And eventually, as with many other Chinese industries, the most successful will look to sell their wines overseas.如今,新一代中国葡萄酒酿造者努力提升质量,以图满足品味变得更加敏锐的国内葡萄酒消费者,同时吸引那些主要喝法国和美国等地进口葡萄酒的资深爱好者们。并且和许多其他中国产业一样,自己的产品能够销往海外是他们心目中最大的成功。“They’ve got all the money in the world, they’ve got all the ambition in the world, and they’ve hired all the top consultants,” says Steven Spurrier, the British wine merchant who organized the “Judgment of Paris,” the 1976 blind tasting that stunned the wine world when California wines beat the French. “It’s inevitable the Chinese are going to make better and better wines.”“他们有的是钱,有的是雄心壮志,还雇了很多顶级顾问,”英国葡萄酒商史蒂芬·斯珀里尔(Steven Spurrier)说。他是“巴黎评审”(Judgment of Paris)的组织者,这场1976年的葡萄酒盲品活动曾经评定加利福尼亚葡萄酒优于法国葡萄酒,令整个葡萄酒界都为之震惊。“中国的葡萄酒会愈来愈好,这是毋庸置疑的。”Sitting in the courtyard of her family’s ramshackle compound outside the regional capital of Yinchuan, Ms. Gao of Silver Heights looked out over the vineyard her father planted nearly 20 years ago. Among the first in the region to plant grapes, he suggested she go to France to study winemaking in 1999. “I was 21. I said, sure, why not?” she said. “It was France that interested me, not winemaking.”在宁夏首府银川的郊外,银色高地酒庄的高源坐在自家一处破败的院落里,望着她父亲将近20年前种下的葡萄园。他是这一带第一批种植葡萄的人,1999年,他建议高源去法国学习酿制葡萄酒。“我那年21岁。我说,好吧,为什么不呢?”她说。“我其实是对法国感兴趣,而不是酿酒。”After earning a degree in oenology, she did a stint at the highly regarded Calon-Ségur, where she met, and eventually married, the winemaker. French attitudes made a deep impression. “I learned to focus on quality, to make the best wine you can with the material you have,” she said.获得酒类研究学位后,她在享有盛名的凯隆世家酒庄工作了一段,和那里的酿酒师相识,最后嫁给了他。法国的态度对她产生了深深的影响。“我学会了关注质量,用手头的原料酿出最好的葡萄酒,”她说。After Ms. Gao returned to China, the first vintage she and her father produced in 2007 was just 10 barrels, or 3,000 bottles. Today, Ms. Gao makes four wines, with total production of 60,000 bottles. A 2013 bottle of her Summit label sells for around .高女士回中国后,2007年,她和父亲酿出的第一批葡萄酒只有十桶,合3000瓶。如今高女士的酒庄生产四种葡萄酒,总产量达到6万瓶。银色高地出品的一瓶2013年的“阙歌”(Summit)葡萄酒售价在75美元左右。“She’s considered the best winemaker, with practically the best wine, in all of China,” says Gérard Colin, a French consultant who helped Lafite Rothschild develop a winery in China. “Emma put Ningxia on the map.”“她已被视为中国最好的酿酒者,她出品的葡萄酒几乎也是中国最好的,”杰拉德·科林(Gérard Colin)是帮助古堡酒庄( Lafite Rothschild)在中国建立酒庄的法国顾问,他说,“艾玛(高源的英文名)让宁夏进入了世界酒庄的版图。”A poor coal region wedged below Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, with its hilly, arid scrubland, is ill suited for most agriculture. It’s dry and hot in the summer, with long, freezing winters. But its sandy, rocky soil proved ideal for growing grapes. The Helan Mountains to the west protect the vineyards from harsh desert winds, while cool nights keep the grapes from ripening too fast.宁夏曾是一个贫瘠的煤矿产区,位于内蒙南部,地形多山,气候干旱,生着灌木丛,不适合大部分农作物。夏季炎热干燥,冬季漫长寒冷。但多砂坚硬的土地却非常适合种植葡萄。西部的贺兰山脉可以保护葡萄园不受凛冽的沙漠风暴侵袭,寒冷的夜晚可以让葡萄不至生长得过快。Eager to create a new industry, the regional government built extensive irrigation systems starting in the late 1990s and put winemaking at the center of development plans. In 2005, the government helped start the area’s first “demonstration” winery, Helan Qingxue.地方政府渴望打造新产业,自20世纪90年代末起,开始修建大量的灌溉系统,把酿酒业作为发展计划的核心。2005年,政府帮助建造了这一地区的第一个“示范”酒庄:贺兰晴雪。A major turning point came in 2011 when Helan Qingxue won a gold medal in a prestigious international competition by the British wine publication Decanter. A 2009 bottle of its Jia Bei Lan was named best red Bordeaux varietal over 10, beating out rivals from Napa, Australia and Bordeaux.2011年,贺兰晴雪在英国葡萄酒杂志《醇鉴》(Decanter)主办的国际大赛上获金奖,这成了重要的转折点。一瓶2009年的加贝兰红酒被评为10英镑以上级最佳波尔多品种级红酒,击败了来自纳帕、澳大利亚与波尔多的竞争对手。Suddenly, what had been a slow buildup turned into a stampede. The award “made people realize that wine could be a great business,” said Guo Xiaoheng, a native of the region who trained as a sommelier in France before returning to sell winemaking equipment. Demand — and prices — for Ningxia’s wines began to take off.突然之间,这里的葡萄酒业出现了厚积薄发。这个奖项“让人们发现葡萄酒可以成为一项大买卖,”当地人郭晓恒(音译)说,他曾在法国接受斟酒师培训,回国后开始卖酿酒设备。对宁夏葡萄酒的需求开始上涨,其价格也随之水涨船高。A decade ago, Ningxia had just a handful of wineries. Today, there are more than 70, with 40 more under construction, and the government plans to reach 200 by 2020. As elsewhere in China, red wines dominate, mostly the Bordeaux blends — principally mixtures of cabernet sauvignon, merlot and cabernet franc — popular in China.10年前,宁夏只有寥寥几个酒庄。如今,这里已经有70多个酒庄,还有40多个正在建设之中,政府计划在2020年让这一数字达到200个。和中国其他地方一样,这里以红酒为主,多数是在中国流行的波尔多混合品种,混合了赤霞珠、梅洛和品丽珠三种葡萄。Jancis Robinson, a British wine journalist, judged a blind tasting of Chinese wines in Shanghai last year. “Ningxia really did shine. They produced most of the top wines,” she said. They are now “very acceptable commercial quality wines.”去年,英国葡萄酒记者杰西斯·罗宾逊(Jancis Robinson)在上海盲品了若干中国葡萄酒。“宁夏葡萄酒真的很突出。他们生产了大多最好的葡萄酒,”她说。现在它们已经是“拥有非常可以接受的商业品质的葡萄酒”。For Ms. Gao, that’s not good enough. Early one morning in May, she drove an hour out to the Helan Mountain foothills, where she is building a winery with more advanced equipment. The expanded vineyards will allow Silver Heights to grow to 200,000 bottles per year.对于高源来说,这还不够。五月的一个清晨,她开车一小时来到贺兰山脚下,她正在那里兴建一座拥有更先进设备的酒庄。这座扩建的酒庄将令银色高地的产量增长到每年20万瓶。Surveying the waist-high vines jutting from the rocky soil, she said it takes five years or more before they produce the quality she requires. In a nearby plot, she has begun to experiment with pinot noir, chardonnay and other varietals.她观察着岩石土壤中生长出来的齐腰的葡萄,说至少还要再过五年,这些葡萄结出的果实才能达到她所需要的质量。在附近的一块地,她已经开始尝试黑皮诺和霞多丽等品种的葡萄。“We want to try the land, to see what’s suitable,” she says. “We are not investing for one or two years; we’re investing for the next 100 years. Those will be wines for future generations to make.”“我们希望测试这块土地,看看种什么才是最合适的,”她说。“我们不是在做一两年的投资,我们是要为未来的一百年做投资。这是未来的一代代人将要酿制的酒。” amp; Chandon’s new sparkling wine facility — with its clean modern lines and state-of-the-art equipment — has become one of the area’s biggest standouts since it opened two years ago.两年前,酩悦公司崭新的酒厂,包括洁净的现代生产线和代表最先进水准的设备,顿时成了当地最为醒目的一景。Pointing out the giant tanks used to produce 50,000 cases last year, the estate director, Shen Yang, says Chandon is in the first phase of a long-term investment aimed at getting China’s white-collar professionals to drink more sparkling wine.酩悦在宁夏酒庄的经理沈旸指着去年生产了5万箱酒的巨大容器说,酩悦正在进行一项长期投资,目的是要让中国懂葡萄酒的白领人士能够喝到更多的气泡酒,目前正进行到第一阶段。“Our mission in China is to create a new market for this wine,” Mr. Shen said.“我们在中国的任务就是要为这种葡萄酒开拓全新的市场。”沈先生说。Today, Chinese demand for sparkling wines is tiny — roughly 2 percent of total wine consumption, he says, compared with 9 percent for mature markets. But amp; Chandon decided that with imports rising, it was time to start producing locally.他说,目前中国对于气泡酒的需求还很小,大约只占到葡萄酒总消费的2%,而在成熟的市场,气泡酒消费占葡萄酒总消费的9%。但鉴于中国进口量的增加,酩悦认为是时候开始在本地进行生产了。“China’s market has enormous potential,” he added. “The interest in wine now is a reflection of its stage of economic development.”“中国市场有巨大的潜力,”他补充说,“如今人们对葡萄酒的兴趣反映了中国经济发展的阶段。”Ningxia’s growing reputation has attracted investment, as domestic and international players alike look at China’s market. The region’s wineries produced 270 million bottles in 2014, nearly triple the level of three years earlier.国内外投资者都很关注中国市场。因此宁夏的崛起吸引到了不少投资。2014年,这里的酒庄共生产了2.7亿瓶葡萄酒,是三年前的近三倍。The resulting boom has reshaped Yinchuan. Signs of prosperity are everywhere, from the five-star Kempinski Hotel to the office towers and apartment complexes popping up all across the city. On the city’s outskirts, a constant flow of tractors and trucks race along winding two-lane roadways rutted with potholes. A new highway to speed visitors to the wineries is under construction.这一繁荣改变了银川的面貌。从凯宾斯基五星大酒店,到城市里到处兴建的办公大厦和公寓大楼,到处都是繁荣的迹象。市郊蜿蜒坑洼的双车道公路上总是不断地有拖拉机和卡车来来往往。一条全新的高速公路正在兴建,可以方便参观者前往酒庄。Changyu Pioneer Wine, China’s oldest domestic wine producer — and one of the three giants that dominate the market — has spent over 0 million creating a Disneyesque, nearly 140,000-square-foot “chateau,” complete with fountains, turrets and two suits of medieval armor guarding the gates. Run in partnership with the Austrian winemaker Lenz Moser, it is the latest of six castles that Changyu has built around China to draw middle-class Chinese who have begun to enjoy Western-style vacations. The general manager, Ruan Shi Li, says he expects 80,000 visitors this year, more than double its first year.张裕公司是中国最老牌的国内葡萄酒生产商,也是目前占领中国葡萄酒市场的三巨头之一。公司斥资1亿多美元,打造了一座占地近14万平方英尺的迪士尼式“酒庄”,内有喷泉、塔楼,还有两套中世纪盔甲守卫大门。这座酒庄是与澳大利亚酿酒师兰斯·塞尔(Lenz Moser)合作经营的,张裕公司在中国各地共建造了六座类似的城堡,希望能够吸引开始享受起西式度假模式的中国中产阶级人士前来,这座酒庄是其中最新的一座。酒庄总经理阮士礼(音译)称,他预计酒庄今年的游客人数将超过酒庄经营首年游客人数的两倍,达到8万人。But some are starting to worry about whether the breakneck growth is sustainable, as the new wealth has prompted something of a speculative land rush. Chen Deqi was among Ningxia’s earliest investors, buying 25,000 acres in 2007. Now he’s dividing it into 100 parcels to create “mini chateaus” for the wealthy.但是,新的财富刺激了一些类似于土地投机潮的投资热,一些人开始担忧这种高速增长是否是可持续的。陈德启(音译)是宁夏的早期投资者之一,他在2007年购买了25000英亩的土地。现在,他把这块土地划分成了100份,想要为富人打造“迷你酒庄”。Mr. Chen says he aly has buyers willing to pay 1 million renminbi — roughly 0,000 — for the first two. He says the land is now worth 20 times what he paid for it.陈先生说,他已经找到愿意投资100万人民币(约16万美元)购买头两块地的买家了。他说,这片土地现在的价格已经是他买地时价格的20倍。Others are concerned that quality could suffer. Xie Donjiang, a Ningxia native who developed a wine property south of Beijing and also owns the Ektimo winery in Sebastopol, Calif., returned to check out Ningxia last fall. He was disappointed.还有一些人担心葡萄酒的质量会出现下滑。谢东强(音译)是一位宁夏本地人,他在北京南部投资建造过一座葡萄酒产业,目前是位于加利福尼亚州塞巴斯托波的艾科蒂莫(Ektimo)酒庄的所有者。去年秋天,他回到宁夏考察,不禁感到失望。He argues that Ningxia officials have encouraged the willy-nilly planting of grapes without understanding which varietals are best suited to its terroir — the combination of soil, exposure and climate that makes each vineyard unique.他说,宁夏官员一直在鼓励人们毫无计划地种植葡萄,却并不了解什么葡萄品种最适合在当地风土条件下栽种——风土条件是由土壤、日照、气候等方面的综合构成,是每一座葡萄园的独特之处。“Ningxia is pushing too hard,” Mr. Xie said. “This is basic analysis for wine, but the government is not doing it.”“宁夏的步子太快了,”谢先生说道,“了解风土条件是对于葡萄酒的基础分析,但是政府却没有做这件事。”Zhou Jianyu is a businessman from Hunan. Like many younger Chinese, Mr. Zhou acquired a taste for wine while studying abroad. At first, he favored European wines — mostly French and Italian. But three years ago, he began drinking only Chinese wines. “They were excellent, so I began to drink more,” he said.周建宇(音译)是一位湖南的商人。和许多年轻中国人一样,他在国外留学期间喜欢上了葡萄酒。他起初更喜欢欧洲葡萄酒——主要是法国和意大利葡萄酒。但是三年前,他开始只喝中国葡萄酒了。他说:“它们棒极了,所以我开始更多喝中国葡萄酒。”On a tour of Legacy Peak, one of Ningxia’s best new wineries, Mr. Zhou and his friends had a lunch of fish, crabs, chicken and vegetables. While they ate, the winemaker, Zhou Shu Zhen, discussed the local climate and explained how a longer barrel aging added depth to her reds.周先生曾到宁夏最好的新酒庄之一的留世酒庄旅游。他和朋友在那里吃午饭,有鱼、螃蟹、鸡和蔬菜。席间酿酒师周淑珍谈起了当地的气候条件,向他们解释,较长的橡木桶陈化期增加了她所酿造的红酒的厚度。“For many people, California or French wines have their own flavor,” said Mr. Zhou, who is not related to the winemaker. “But I’ve discovered that Ningxia’s wines have their own flavor and character too.”“对许多人来说,加州或法国的葡萄酒都有着独特的风味,”周先生(和周淑珍并无亲属关系)说,“但是,我发现,宁夏的葡萄酒也有它自己独特的风味和特点。”As Ningxia races to expand, cultivating customers like Mr. Zhou will be critical. Much of the explosion in wine consumption was driven by government officials and executives at state-owned companies buying expensive vintages for banquets and gifts. In the last two years, the government has been on a tough anticorruption campaign, and one consequence was a 12 percent drop-off in red wine consumption last year. The stock market crash and slowing economy this year are not helping.随着宁夏的步履加快,培养像周先生这样的顾客将是关键。此前,葡萄酒消费的爆炸式增长大都是由政府官员和国企高管拉动的,他们购买昂贵的葡萄酒用于宴会或作为礼物。过去两年间,政府发起了严厉的反腐运动,其后果之一,就是令去年红酒的消费量下滑了12%。今年股票市场的暴跌以及放缓的经济对红酒销量更是雪上加霜。The shakeout is forcing winemakers to focus on “real buyers,” says Fongyee Walker, the managing director of Dragon Phoenix, a wine education consultancy based in Beijing. That is the middle- and upper-class Chinese who drink wine because they like it, not because of the status or favors it brings.北京葡萄酒教育咨询机构龙凤美酒咨询公司的总经理赵凤仪说,如今,经济衰退正逐渐迫使葡萄酒生产商们关注“真正的买家”——中国的中产阶级和上流阶层,他们喝葡萄酒,是因为他们喜欢葡萄酒,而不是为了彰显身份或品味。To build that customer base, Ningxia’s producers say they are concentrating on getting their wines into shops and restaurants in Beijing and other major cities. Few Ningxia wines are available outside the region, and prices are high.为了打造这个消费者基础,宁夏的生产者们说,他们正专注于让自己的葡萄酒走进北京和其他大城市的商店与餐厅。目前,在宁夏以外的地区能够买到的宁夏葡萄酒很少,价格也很高。“Even if people love our wines, they cannot find us,” says Wang Fang of Kanaan Winery. Both Kanaan and Legacy Peak have recently signed deals with top wine distributors.“就算人们喜欢我们的葡萄酒,他们也找不到我们。”迦南美地酒庄的王芳说道。近来,迦南美地酒庄和留世酒庄都与顶尖葡萄酒经销商签订了协议。Many are also envisioning a time when top Chinese wines will be a common sight on the shelves of American or European stores.许多人都憧憬着有一天,顶尖的中国葡萄酒能成为美国或欧洲商店货架上常见的商品。Mike Insley, a New Zealander who recently arrived to upgrade Pernod Ricard’s vineyards, says the area reminds him of Marlborough — the center of his country’s wine industry — in the late 1980s. Back then, New Zealand’s wines had no international recognition and its vintners were only beginning to understand the wines they produced.新西兰人迈克·英斯利(Mike Insley)最近来到了中国,帮助改良保乐力加公司(Pernod Ricard)在中国的葡萄园。他说这个地方让他想起20世纪80年代末的新西兰马尔堡(Marlborough),那里是新西兰葡萄酒产业的中心。那时,新西兰的葡萄酒还没有受到国际认可,新西兰的葡萄酒生产者也才刚刚开始了解他们所生产的酒。Today, wine is New Zealand’s No. 6 export, with sales of more than 0 million. “That’s what happens when a country gets this right,” Mr. Insley said.如今,葡萄酒已经是新西兰的第六大出口商品,销售额超过9.4亿美元。“当一个国家做得好的时候,这种事情就会发生。”英斯利说。Chinese vintages are starting to pique overseas interest. Bruno Paumard, a French winemaker who exports to Britain, Australia and Hong Kong from a large estate in nearby Inner Mongolia, has begun to ship his wines as well. And Changyu Moser XV, which now sells about 170,000 bottles a year in Britain, Germany and the Netherlands, is gearing up for a big expansion. Mr. Moser says it aims to hit roughly five million bottles across the Continent within a few years; he will also soon begin talks with American distributors. Thanks to a strong 2015 vintage, he adds, “we have a chance to make China a real player in the international arena.”现在,中国上好的葡萄酒逐渐开始引起了海外人士的兴趣。布鲁诺·鲍马尔(Bruno Paumard)是一位法国酿酒师,他向英国、澳大利亚和香港出口来自中国内蒙古附近一处大型酒庄的葡萄酒。他也已经开始出口自己的葡萄酒。张裕塞尔十五世酒庄每年在英国、德国和荷兰售出约17万瓶葡萄酒,如今正在为一场大型扩张做准备。塞尔先生说,公司计划在几年内,让公司的葡萄酒在欧洲大陆的销量达到约500万瓶,而他本人很快也会开始与美国的经销商谈判。他还说,多亏了2015年优质葡萄酒的良好表现,“我们才有机会能让中国成为国际领域内的真正玩家。”Silver Heights has also had interest from Europe. But Ms. Gao worries that Chinese wines are still too expensive to compete in international markets. For now, expanding her vineyards and improving her winemaking are more important than exporting.银色高地酒庄也引起了一些欧洲人士的兴趣。但是高女士担心,中国葡萄酒目前的价格太过昂贵,无法在国际市场上与其他葡萄酒竞争。就目前而言,拓展自己的葡萄园、酿酒技术,要比出口葡萄酒更加重要。“We do not have time for that now,” she said with a laugh. “Maybe next year.”“我们现在没有时间考虑这个问题,”她笑着说,“也许明年吧。” /201511/409345JUST BEFORE DAWN, on the whitewashed steps leading up to the Shiva temple on Perwa Hill, we find four leopards. A mother and three cubs, they loll about, rubbing against each other like oversize domestic cats. The guide is shining a powerful flashlight, and when it catches their eyes, the glint is a startling yellow-green. Languorously stretching, occasionally changing position, they seem unconcerned by the humans watching them from a jeep at the foot of the hill. As the sun nears the horizon, the sky turns pale and the contours of the hill appear, an ancient granite dome whorled and pocked by erosion, full of caves and fissures. Dawn breaks, bathing the rock in a peachy glow, and the cats slink out of sight.佩尔瓦山(Perwa Hill)上有座湿婆庙,天亮前,在通往寺庙的那条被刷成白色的阶梯上,我们发现了四只豹子。一只母豹和三只幼豹悠哉游哉地倚在一处,相互擦着身体,仿佛特大号的家猫。向导打着一把非常亮的手电,它们的眼睛被光线照到时,闪耀着慑人的黄绿色光芒。懒懒地舒展身形,偶尔变换一下姿势,它们似乎并不在意我们这些从山脚下的一辆吉普车里注视着它们的人类。当太阳靠近地平线的时候,天际泛出鱼肚白,佩尔瓦山的轮廓逐渐显现,古老的圆形花岗岩山顶历经岁月的侵蚀,布满岩洞和裂隙。破晓时分,橙红色的阳光洒在岩石上;“大猫”从我们的视线里消失了。Up at the top, an elderly priest begins to move around the sanctuary, a bearded figure wrapped in a shawl against the morning cold. I watch through binoculars as he begins the long, slow descent of the steps, perhaps two hundred of them, steadying himself with a stick. According to local legend, as a young man the priest committed a murder and sought sanctuary here, whereupon he was filled with the wild glory of God. Seeing his devotion, his pursuers relented, and he has spent his life in this remote place, serving Lord Shiva. On an outcrop directly above the steps, about halfway down the steep hillside, the oldest of the cubs has reappeared and is watching the frail old man pass below. Almost full-grown, it is a formidable creature, with muscular forelegs and a powerful jaw. It looks poised to pounce. Yet as the priest picks his way down, it makes no move, and he reaches the bottom safely, puttering off to run his morning errands in the village.山顶上,一位年长的祭司开始在寺庙周遭活动。他留着一副大胡子,以一件披肩抵御清晨的寒气。我透过双筒望远镜看到,他借助一根拐杖保持稳定,顺着长长的阶梯慢慢走下来,走了或许两百级台阶。当地有传说称,这位祭司年轻时杀了人,来此寻求庇护,结果让自己全身心地沉浸在了神的伟大荣耀之中。追捕者见他极为虔诚,便放了他一马。后来他一直待在这个偏远的地方,侍奉湿婆神。山坡很陡,祭司行至中途,个头最大的幼豹在阶梯上方一块凸出的岩石上再次现身,看着衰弱的老人从下方经过。那只几乎完全发育成熟的幼豹绝对是头猛兽,有着肌肉发达的前腿和强有力的下颚。看起来,它随时准备扑将下去。可是,当祭司拄着拐杖往下走的时候,它一动不动;祭司安然无恙地来到山脚下,慢条斯理地走向村子,去办早上的差事。Jawai, in the Pali district of Western Rajasthan, is a remarkable place. In a country that has been changed almost beyond recognition by two decades of explosive economic growth, electrification here is patchy, the crops of mustard and wheat painstakingly harvested by hand. In 1946, Maharajah Umaid Singh of Jodhpur broke ground on a dam on the river Jawai, the most significant incursion of modernity into the landscape. The land around the dam is known informally by the river’s name. The rich river-bottom soil, which for millennia has supported clans of Rajput farmers, is broken by dramatic solitary hills, stark uninhabited granite peaks, almost all of which are marked by a shrine or temple. Some, like the one at Perwa Hill, are lived in by the priests who tend them. Many are passed down from father to son. Through this country wander semi-nomadic herders of the Rabari tribe following ancient routes that take them south into Gujarat and east into Madhya Pradesh. And in the hills live dozens of leopards, predators who by day watch the humans go about their business, and by night come down to hunt, stalking the streets of their villages and killing their livestock.位于拉贾斯坦邦西部帕里地区的贾瓦伊,是一个令人难忘的地方。过去20年里,由于经济的井喷式增长,印度的面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化,但在贾瓦伊,电气化的进程并不顺畅,芥末和小麦等作物仍需以手工方式辛苦收割。久德布王公乌麦·辛格(Umaid Singh)1946年命人在贾瓦伊河上修筑的一道水坝,是现代化为当地景观留下的最显著印记。水坝周边的地界,被人颇为随意地以贾瓦伊河的名字命名。千百年来,河水流经的这片沃土,一直是拉杰普特族(Rajput)农民赖以生存的根本。一座座突然隆起的孤山将土地分割开来,花岗岩山坡荒凉至极。几乎每座山丘上都有一座神祠或者寺庙。有些庙宇,比如佩尔瓦山的这座,里面住着打理它们的祭司。还有许多则是父子世代相传。过着半游牧生活的拉巴里(Rabari)部落的牧民,沿着南至古吉拉特邦、东至中央邦的古老路线在这个国家跋涉迁徙。这里的山中有很多豹子, 这些肉食动物在白天看着人类为生活而忙碌着,晚上则下山捕猎,出没于村庄的街道上,杀死人们饲养的牲畜。Around the world, from the savannas of Kenya to Brazil’s Pantanal wetlands, when big cats pose a threat to poor communities, the same sad story prevails: Cats kill valuable animals. Occasionally they kill people, often children, who are small enough to be carried away. And then people kill the cats. In the first three months of this year, leopard attacks across India left at least nine dead and 38 wounded. Yet in Jawai no one has been taken by a leopard for over 150 years. In 2013, a young naturalist called Adam Bannister came to Jawai to work for Anjali and Jaisal Singh, a New Delhi-based couple who wanted to set up a high-end safari operation. Bannister, a sandy-haired South African who had worked with leopards in South Africa and jaguars in Brazil, walked and drove around the region, talking to local people to find out the patterns of leopard movement. He quickly realized that Jawai was unique. Perhaps nowhere else in the world do humans and big cats live in such proximity with so little friction.在世界各地,从肯尼亚的大草原到巴西的潘塔纳尔(Pantanal)湿地,提起“大猫”对贫困社区构成的威胁,人们都在讲述相同版本的令人遗憾的故事:“大猫”杀死了宝贵的牲畜,有时还会杀人——常常是小到足以被叼走的儿童。人类随后则会把它们杀掉。今年头三个月,印度的豹子袭人事件至少造成9人死亡,38人受伤。但在贾瓦伊,愈150年以来,还没有人被豹子夺去性命。2013年,年轻的物学家亚当·班尼斯特(Adam Bannister)因为工作需要来到贾瓦伊,他的雇主是住在新德里的Anjali和Jaisal Singh夫妇,他们想在这儿创办一家高端观兽旅行机构。班尼斯特是个有着沙色头发的南非人,曾在工作中和南非的豹子、巴西的美洲虎打过交道。为了弄清豹子出没的规律,他有时步行、有时驾车,走遍了这一地区,跟当地人交谈。他很快意识到,贾瓦伊是独一无二的。人和豹子极为近距离地生活在一起,却甚少发生擦,这在其他任何地方都不可想象。The result of Bannister’s research and the Singhs’ experience (their company, Sujan, runs successful tiger and elephant safaris elsewhere in India and in Kenya) is a luxurious tented camp designed to have a low environmental impact. Its 11 tents, located in a field bought from a local farmer, can house 22 people at full capacity, and staff are recruited, as much as possible, from the community. The permanent structures — a garage for jeeps, staff accommodation and offices — are hidden behind a high bamboo fence, giving guests like me the illusion that they are living a little closer to nature than is in fact the case. Every day, just before dawn and again at dusk, Bannister and his team treat the tourists — often serial safarigoers, equipped with expensive long lenses and wardrobes of khaki clothing — to a bouncy and sometimes hair-raising jeep ride through the countryside, past antelope, porcupine, crocodiles and all manner of bird-life, to look for leopards.基于班尼斯特的研究和辛格夫妇的经验(他们开了家名为Sujan的公司,在印度其他地方以及肯尼亚经营以老虎和大象为卖点的观兽旅行业务,颇为成功),一个旨在尽量少给环境造成影响的奢华帐篷营地诞生了。营地的11顶帐篷都在从当地一个农民手中买来的空地上,最多可以容纳22人;招募工作人员时,尽可能实行当地人优先的原则。永久性建筑物——一个存放吉普车的车库,以及员工的宿舍和办公室——则隐藏在一道高高的竹篱笆后面,会让我这样的客人产生错觉,以为自己住在一个更为贴近自然的环境里。每天天亮前和黄昏时,班尼斯特及其团队会带领那些通常是配备昂贵的长焦镜头、穿着卡其布装的观兽旅行者坐上一辆有时颠簸得令人心惊胆战的吉普车,穿行于乡野之间,经过羚羊、豪猪、鳄鱼以及各种鸟类身旁,去寻找豹子的踪迹。I first visited the camp last October, looking for a place to unwind after a family wedding in Delhi. On that visit, Bannister took me to watch a mother and her cubs prowl about outside a cave partway up a hill called Nag Bawasi, which lies right on the outskirts of the nearby Sena (“Army”) village, founded, according to tradition, by demobbed Rajput soldiers. The mother, Bannister explained, had earlier that day killed a goat on the Sena cricket pitch and dragged the carcass up the hill to eat. By the time we came upon them in Bannister’s jeep, the leopard family was satiated, relaxed. As dawn broke, the sounds of the village waking up brought home how startlingly close they were to human habitation. Barking dogs, a transistor radio, the coughing of a generator. Though the elevation creates a natural boundary between the two worlds — the cats above and the humans below — there was no illusion that we were in an uninhabited place, some game reserve or national park. The morning light revealed sleepy men and women walking along paths, each one carrying a container of water, a can or a steel lota, on their way to defecate among the scrub and the drifts of plastic waste.我初次到访该营地是在去年11月,当时刚在德里参加完家人的婚礼,想找个地方放松一下身心。那一次,班尼斯特带我观看了一只母豹和她的幼崽在那格巴瓦斯山(Nag Bawas)山腰的一个山洞外游荡的情形。那格巴瓦斯山就位于附近的塞纳村(Sena)的边缘地带,“Sena”意为军队,据传该村庄是由解甲还乡的拉杰普特族士兵修建的。班尼斯特解释说,那只母豹当天早些时候在板球场上杀死了一只山羊,随后将其拖至山上享用。我们乘坐班尼斯特的吉普车抵达时,豹子一家已吃饱喝足,一副放松的样子。破晓时分,村庄逐渐苏醒的声音让我们意识到,它们竟然如此靠近人类的栖息地。在吠叫,晶体管收音机在播音,发电机发出咔咔的响动,各种声音不觉于耳。尽管以海拔高度为天然界限,存在两个不同的世界,豹子在上,人类在下,但毫无疑问,我们待的地方并不荒凉,不是野生动物保护区或者国家公园。清晨的阳光下,睡眼惺忪的男男女女走在小径上,每人都拿着罐子或者钢制圆水壶之类装了水的容器,前往灌木丛中或者一堆堆塑料垃圾之间解手。In parts of Africa where leopards’ prey is more scarce, their territories can be huge, on the order of several hundred square miles for an adult male. Females will have territories within that of a dominant male, staying close to places where they can raise their young. If a cub is female, a mother will cede territory to her. If it’s male, it will usually be pushed out, forced to roam more widely. In Jawai, where territories consist of a network of hills connected by corridors of farmland, leopards needn’t travel far for food and do not feel threatened by the humans around them. It is generally in places where humans have made attempts to kill or expel leopards, such as in Uttarakhand, that attacks are more common. Over a hearty breakfast of bacon and eggs at the camp, Bannister explains his own theory, that the big cats that become “man eaters” are old or weak, too slow to catch other game or too toothless to fight. In Jawai, strong young males are always coming into conflict with their elders, who may well be taken care of before they become a problem. Though leopards can live for 20 years here, Bannister has never sighted one older than 10.在猎物较为稀少的非洲部分地区,豹子的领地十分辽阔,成年雄豹的领地面积可高达数百平方英里。一只雄豹所辖疆域内,会有若干雌豹各踞一隅,这些雌豹通常出没于它们可以抚育幼崽的地方附近。雌性幼崽可以从母亲那里分得一块地盘,雄性幼崽则会被扫地出门,只能去更广阔的天地里闯荡。在贾瓦伊,豹子的领地由一座座以农田为连裰的山冈构成,它们不必为了猎食而跑很远的路,也不会因为周遭生活着人类而感受到威胁。一般是在人类想方设法杀死或者驱逐豹子的地方,比如北安恰尔邦,豹子袭人事件才较为常见。在营地里,班尼斯特边享用包含培根和鸡蛋的丰盛早餐,边解释他自己的理论:成为“食人族”的“大猫”通常是年龄偏长或身体虚弱者,有的速度太慢,难以逮到其他猎物,有的攻击力所剩无几,无法进行搏斗。在贾瓦伊,强壮的青年雄豹常和比它们年长的豹子发生冲突,后者在成为问题之前就已经被解决掉了。尽管这里的豹子可以活到20岁,但班尼斯特从未见过10岁以上者。When he’s not out driving or chatting to the guests, Bannister holes up in a little office next to the camp’s kitchen garden and updates the database he keeps of every leopard sighting, creating entries not unlike Facebook profiles for individual cats. In 2014, he sighted one female leopard — he named her Naina — 75 times. In a month when he tracked her with particular attention, he discovered that she had killed at least three goats, three dogs, two buffalo calves and a young cow, all from a single village. For a poor community, this is a significant economic loss. Yet across Jawai, the leopards seem to be viewed as a blessing. People stand on their roofs to watch them. They take pleasure in their presence.在不用开车,也不必跟客人聊天的时候,班尼斯特会蛰伏在紧挨营地菜园的一间小办公室里,更新一个把每次观看豹子的情形都记录在案的数据库,他为单个豹子创建的条目,跟 Facebook上的个人资料页没什么两样。2014年,他跟一只被他唤作Naina的雌豹碰了75次面。有那么一个月,他特别留意它的行踪,发现它杀死了至少三只山羊、三条、两头水牛犊、一头年轻的母牛,猎物都来自同一个村庄。对一个贫穷的社区而言,这是相当大的经济损失。但在贾瓦伊各处,豹子似乎被视为祥瑞的象征。它们现身时,人们会站在自家屋顶上观看。大家看到它们都很高兴。SPRING IN JAWAI is a time to watch flights of waterbirds land on the lake and eat raw chickpeas out of the pod. The vivid green wheat fields look enhanced, postproduced, as if Shah Rukh Khan might suddenly burst out and sing a sentimental movie song. It is the time of Holi, the festival celebrated across India in a riotous carnival of water jets and colored dye, a time in which differences are resolved by water fights and the senses of hardworking people are pleasantly deranged by opium and the cannabis preparation bhang. On the night of Holika Dahan, the eve of the festival, villagers light bonfires to reenact the destruction of the evil demoness. Climb a hill and you can see them all across the district, beacons in the darkness.贾瓦伊的春天,是观看一群群水鸟落在湖面上,啄开豆荚吃新鲜鹰嘴豆的季节。郁郁葱葱的麦田仿佛经过浓墨重的修饰和后期制作,让人觉得沙鲁克·汗(Shah Rukh Khan)或许会突然从哪里冒出来,唱一首伤感的电影歌曲。春天也是霍利节(Holi)所在的季节,人们会在这个举国同庆的节日里纵情狂欢,泼洒水和粉,种种差异和分歧在打水仗之际消弭于无形,含有鸦片和大麻成分的饮料和食品让终日辛苦劳作者处于狂喜状态。在节日前夜的火烧霍利卡仪式(Holika Dahan)上,村民点燃篝火,重新演绎邪恶的女妖被烧死的情形。爬上一座山冈,你可以看到整个地区到处是篝火在黑暗中熊熊燃烧。On top of Nag Bawasi, rowdy Sena boys chant and sing, their fire (made of truck tires) sending flames up into the sky. Down in the village, others compete to pull a 20-foot pole out of the flames, carrying it around like a giant torch. Sparks fly, and I have to duck out of the way of the Bacchanalian procession. Tonight, with all the smoke and noise, there are no leopards in sight, but the religious significance that attaches to the hill and to the other high places in Jawai is part of the reason that they form a sanctuary for the cats. People do not like to kill living things near a temple, and locals do not have reason to climb these hills, except to worship.那格巴瓦斯山顶上,调皮的塞纳村男孩在吟诵歌唱,他们那烧着卡车轮胎的篝火直冲天际。山下的村庄里,其他人争抢着从火焰中抽出一根6米长的杆子,像举着大型火炬一样到处转悠。火星飞溅,我不得不避开狂欢队伍行进的路线。今夜,在烟熏火燎和嘈杂喧闹之中,没有出现豹子的身影,但在某种程度上,这座山冈以及贾瓦伊其他高地所具有的宗教意义,正是它们成为豹子庇护所的原因所在。人们一般不愿在寺庙附近杀生;而且除了祭拜神明,当地人也没有理由上山。The next morning I watch Bannister chase village children around with a mineral water bottle full of dubious colored liquid. The kids give as good as they get, drenching him and squealing with laughter. Someone sprays my shirt pink, someone else dumps blue and green powder on my head and a raffish village elder offers me a shot of syrupy lime-green moonshine, which, lightweight that I am, I really can’t face so early in the day. Others have no such qualms. Around me there are bloodshot eyes, woozy grins. A musical ensemble consisting of a couple of large double-headed dhol drums and a tal pan sets up a clattering rhythm, and men dance the gair, clacking long sticks together as they circle a shrine. Through this chaos, Bannister genially shepherds a small group of tourists, including an elderly English couple celebrating their golden wedding anniversary. He is a man performing a balancing act, fiercely committed to the leopards yet aware that the very presence of tourists is a sign that faster times are coming to this place, in the form of Internet access and cellphones and members of a younger generation who know what things cost and are not sentimental about the old ways.第二天早上,我看到班尼斯特手持矿泉水瓶追着村里的孩子跑,瓶子里装着成分不明的色液体。孩子们以牙还牙,边往他身上淋水,边兴奋地尖叫。有人把我的衬衫喷成了粉色;还有人把蓝色和绿色的粉末倒在我头上。村里一位不修边幅的长者给了我一杯浓稠的、柠檬绿色的私酒,我是个酒量很浅的人,一大早就开喝真有点招架不住。但其他人并没有这样的顾虑。到处都是布满血丝的眼睛和昏昏然的笑容。一个乐团以两面双头多喝尔大鼓和一面镲制造出铿锵的节奏,男人们跳起了盖尔舞(Gair),边绕着圣坛转圈,边让手中的长棍相互触碰。在嘈杂声中,班尼斯特态度亲切地照看着一小群游客,其中包括一对来自英国、正在庆祝金婚的老夫妇。班尼斯特是一个善于把握平衡的人,他极为关注有关豹子的一切,同时也知道,游客的出现意味着节奏更快的时代正侵入这个地方:人们开始上网,用智能手机,年轻一代明白要为新事物付出怎样的代价,毫不感怀旧有的生活方式。One of the guides at the camp is Varun Kutty, a dapper young man who grew up far from here in the Himalayan foothills of Himachal Pradesh. He has made it his business to understand the local culture, much as Bannister has made it his business to get to know the wildlife. On the evening of Holi, after I send my paint-spattered clothes to the camp laundry, he arranges for me to visit a manor house in Falna, to meet Thakur Abhimanyu Singh, the village’s leader. Here, the thakurs are the apex of the human system, just as the leopards are the apex of the wild one. Though Jawai is by no means a timeless place, it is overwhelmingly Hindu and the caste system retains real power. Modern forms of authority like the Indian Forest Service operate here, and modern politics too, but in practice, feudal lords like the thakur are the ones who settle disputes and receive fealty, much as their forefathers did hundreds of years ago.营地上的一个向导瓦伦·库帝(Varun Kutty)是个衣冠楚楚的小伙子,自小生长在离贾瓦伊很远的喜马偕尔邦境内的喜马拉雅山麓。他把了解当地文化当成自己的职责所在,就像班尼斯特把了解野生动物当成其职责所在一样。霍利节那天傍晚,我把被泼得色斑驳的衣送到营地的洗衣房后,他安排我前往法尔纳村(Falna)的一座庄园,拜会被尊称为塔库尔(Thakur)的村长Abhimanyu Singh。在这里,拥有塔库尔头衔的人是人类社会的至高无上者,正如豹子是荒野世界的至高无上者。贾瓦伊绝非一个时间凝滞的地方,但其人口以印度教徒为主,种姓制度依然颇具影响力。印度林业局(Indian Forest Service)等现代权力机构和现代政治制度都在这里运转着。但从实践来看,塔库尔这样的封建领主才是解决争议、得到效忠的人,与几百年前的祖先相比,他们所扮演的角色没有太大不同。We arrive as a huge gair dance is circling through the courtyard. The thakur, a friendly, mustachioed man with the placid good manners of one accustomed to being obeyed, sits cross-legged on a platform near the main gate, heavy rings on his fingers and a pair of mobile phones on the sheet in front of him. Stick-carrying men file in and greet him before heading into the dance. Women congregate in a corner, forming a densely packed crowd. In between namastes, the thakur points out various local worthies who are part of the line — a bank manager, a railway official. Some dancers have immense panache, clacking sticks with the man in front and the man behind in swoops and stylized sword-fighting moves. Others lollop along like drunks doing the conga at a wedding. In front of us, a line of old men are watching the proceedings. They are, to my eye, almost identically dressed, in clean white cotton. Most have mustaches and all wear pagaris, turbans of various colors and designs that allow the thakur to name the caste of each one: “This man in pink is an ironsmith, this man is a farmer. This pink is for a mali, a gardener, the red spots are Meghwal, the ones with the dark red are Rabari, the ones with many colors, those are Rajput men….”我们抵达目的地时,一大群人正在庭院里绕着圈子跳盖尔舞。塔库尔是一个留着八字胡的友善男人,举手投足间透露出惯于领导他人者的波澜不惊、温和有礼。他盘腿坐在靠近正门的一个平台上,手上戴着大大的戒指,面前的单子上放着两部手机。手持长棍的男人鱼贯而入,先跟他打过招呼,才加入跳舞的人群。女人们聚集在一个角落里,密密匝匝地挤作一团。塔库尔一边行着合十礼, 一边给我指出舞者中的当地知名人士——有一位经理,还有一位铁路官员。一些舞者架势十足,抡起自己手中的长棍,去碰触身前或者身后的男人手中的长棍,其动作犹如击剑,颇为有型。其他人则摇摇晃晃,仿佛婚礼上跳着康佳舞的醉汉。我们前面有一排充当看客的老年男子。在我眼里,他们的打扮几乎一模一样,都穿着干净的白色棉布衣衫。大多数人留着八字胡,所有人都包着样式各异的色印度头巾,塔库尔却可以据此说出每个人所属的种姓群体:“这个包粉色头巾的男人是铁匠,这个男人是农民。戴这种粉色头巾的是园丁,头巾上有红点儿的是梅格瓦尔人(Meghwal),头巾为暗红色的是拉巴里人,头巾五颜六色的那些是拉杰普特人……”It is something to be a Rajput man. The thakur is a Rajput. The princely dynasties in Jodhpur and Udaipur are Rajputs. The cardinal Rajput virtue is bravery, not forgiveness or humility. Ordinary Rajputs are arable farmers. As Bannister puts it, “If leopards ate wheat or mustard, you can bet they wouldn’t last long.” The herders whose livestock are threatened are Rabari, not Rajput. The Rabari are semi-settled nomads, with a different view of the world. Women conduct business affairs (and hold a lot of the family wealth in the portable form of jewelry) while the men roam with the animals. Whether it is pressure from their land-owning Rajput neighbors or some aspect of their culture (perhaps stemming from their veneration of Mata Devi, the mother goddess) that leads them to accept the leopards, they are the ones who are called on to exercise forbearance. Fatalism has its limits. They raise high barriers of thorns round their animal pens at night.身为拉杰普特人是件值得骄傲的事情。这位塔库尔本人就是拉杰普特人。焦特布尔和乌代普尔的王族均为拉杰普特人。拉杰普特人最为重要特质是勇敢,而不是宽容或谦逊。普通的拉杰普特人通常是从事农耕的农民。正如班尼斯特所言,“如果豹子以小麦或者芥末为食,可以想见,它们根本活不了多久。”受到豹子威胁的牲畜是牧民的财产,牧民为拉巴里人,而非拉杰普特人。拉巴里人这个过着半定居生活的游牧民族有着迥然不同的世界观。商业事务由女人打理(家庭财富通常是便于携带的珠宝,也由女人掌管),男人则赶着牲畜四处游荡。不知道是因为受到了来自拥有土地的拉杰普特族邻居的压力,还是因为本民族文化中的某些元素发挥了作用(或许是出于对母神Mata Devi的尊崇),拉巴里人接受了豹子的存在。他们是被要求克制忍让的一方。但对宿命论的信奉是有限度的。晚上,他们会在牲畜圈周围竖起高高的荆棘屏障。How long can Jawai’s fragile entente between humans and leopards persist? For the moment, the tourist footprint is very light. Jawai camp is small, exclusive and maintains good relations with the community. But more cars and jeeps are arriving, bringing people to look at the wondrous cats. Bannister believes that, unless some kind of regulation is put in place, the leopards could migrate east into the high Aravalli Mountains. Creating a national park and displacing the farmers and herders would destroy the lifeworld of Jawai’s people and remove the leopards’ main source of food. Such a park would have to be stocked with wild game to make up for the vanished livestock.贾瓦伊的人类和豹子达成了谅解,但这种基础并不牢靠的谅解能存续多久?目前,游客数量还很少。贾瓦伊的营地很小,只接受少量游客,并且和社区保持着良好关系。但更多汽车和吉普车正载着想要瞧个稀奇、一睹豹子风采的人赶往这里。班尼斯特认为,除非当地出台某种监管措施,否则豹子可能会向东迁徙,躲进高高的阿拉瓦利山(Aravalli Mountains)。建一座国家公园,并把农民和牧民迁走,会摧毁贾瓦伊人的生计,同时让豹子失去主要的食物来源。这样一个公园必须配备其他野生动物,以弥补消失的家畜留下的缺口。On my last day at Jawai, I visit a temple not far from Sena village, on a hill called Dev Giri. On the way up, at its base, are monuments to two jeeva samadhis, yogis who had themselves buried alive, leaving behind their material bodies and the cycle of death and rebirth. On the peak is a temple to a dark goddess, Kalka Devi, a vengeful aspect of the Mother Goddess who is worshiped here in a natural cave that reaches way back into the hill. Outside, rotting scraps of clothing hang on a tree, votive offerings from the parents of sick children. Inside, a flight of steps leads up to a stone bearing a relief image of the goddess alongside her vehicle, a black dog. High on the rock above her head, black bees swarm over a huge lobelike hive. I walk up toward her. She has staring eyes. She carries a severed head and is garlanded in skulls. After a few paces, I look down. Beside my bare feet are a set of oily paw prints, the tracks of the leopard who walked here before me.在贾瓦伊度过的最后一天,我拜访了离塞纳村不太远、建在代夫吉里山(Dev Giri)上的一座寺庙。爬山时,我在底下看到了为两位涅槃者设立的纪念碑,那两位瑜珈修行者让人把自己给活埋了,从而脱离了肉身,也脱离了死亡和重生的循环。山顶的寺庙属于黑暗女神Kalka Devi,她代表着母神(Mother Goddess)报复心极强的一面。她也被供奉在通往山体内部的一处天然洞穴中。外面,一棵树上挂着逐渐风化的来自病童衣衫的碎片,那是父母们奉上的贡品。里面,一段向上的阶梯尽头伫立着一块岩石,上边刻着女神的浮雕,身畔的黑是她的坐骑。岩石上还挂着一个挤满了黑蜜蜂的椭圆形蜂巢,就在女神头部上方。我朝着女神向上走去。她怒目圆睁,拿着一颗被砍下来的头颅,身上则挂着着一圈骷髅头。走了几步后,我低下头,看到自己的赤脚旁有些油腻的爪印,那是比我先到的豹子留下的痕迹。 /201512/418059

BEIJING — If you’re driving in a Chinese city in the none-too-distant future and your car is engulfed in a dark, humming metallic belly, don’t panic. It may feel like an alien abduction, but probably it’s only a colossal, street-straddling bus.北京——如果在不远的未来,当你在一个中国城市开车时,你的车被吞进一个黑暗、嗡嗡作响的金属肚子,不要惊慌。虽然那可能让人觉得像是被外星人绑架了,但也可能只不过是一辆横跨大街之上的巨型巴士。The idea of a bus so large, high and long that it could virtually levitate above congested streets seemed surreal when presented at an expo in Beijing in May. But it came a step closer to reality this week, when a prototype went for an experimental spin in Qinhuangdao, a seaside city in northern China.5月份在北京的一个览会上亮相时,如此高大长的、几乎漂浮在拥堵道路上方的大型巴士的想法,似乎有点超现实。但本周,当一个车辆的雏形出现在中国北方海滨城市秦皇岛时,这个想法已经向现实迈近了一步。The makers of the vehicle, known as the Transit Elevated Bus, declared the ride down a few hundred yards of street on Tuesday a success, but the controlled conditions hardly reflected the gnarled unpredictability of Chinese traffic. Television news showed the bus, resembling a goliath bug, edging forward down tracks while two cars nestled underneath.这种被称为“巨型高架巴士”车辆的制造商宣布,周二在街头进行的几百米测试很成功,但测试的可控条件很难反映出中国交通堵塞的不可预测性。电视新闻显示,该大型车像一个巨大的虫子,沿着轨道缓缓向前移动,它的肚子下面待着两辆小汽车。“I wanted to officially show people that this is entirely possible and that the bus can be up and running,” Song Youzhou, the designer of the straddling bus, said in a telephone interview from Qinhuangdao.“我想强调的是,这测试是正式地给(人们)看这巴铁,他的流程(是)完全可能的,可以走起来,”立体快巴的设计师宋有洲从秦皇岛接受电话采访时说。“We were inspecting and testing the vehicle for a range of functions, like ignition, braking and other processes, to see if they all work together and there are no problems,” Mr. Song said. But a full trial run will not take place until the middle of next year, he said.宋有洲说,“我们在测试、实验巴铁的各种功能,比如启动,刹车,其他的流程,如果有没有问题,都可以走得起来。”但是,一次完整的试运行至少要到明年年中后才将开始,他说。To supporters, floating buses offer a solution to the traffic that chokes China’s cities. The prototype is 72 feet long and 26 feet wide. Most important, it is 16 feet high, leaving a tunnel more than 6 feet high between the wheels for cars. Commuters will be able to float above the cars, whisked on rails from one specially built elevated stop to another.在持者看来,浮在路上的巴士可以帮助解决令中国城市阻塞的交通问题。这辆样车长72英尺(约合22米),宽26英尺。最重要的是,它有16英尺高,下方会留出6英尺高的通道,车辆可以在巴士的车轮之间通行。乘客将浮在其他车辆上方,沿着轨道在专门建造的高架站台间高速行驶。“The invention of the Transit Elevated Bus is considered as a revolution for the environment-friendly public transportation,” the maker of the bus, TEB Technology, says on its website.“巴铁的发明被认为是环境友好型公共交通的一项革命,”这种巴士的制造商巴铁科技发展有限公司(TEB Technology)在其英文网站上写道。“No more traffic jams,” it says with some optimism.“从此不再有交通拥堵,”该公司乐观地表示。But skeptics say the bus is a magnificent example of a solution to a problem that is likely to create yet more problems.但怀疑者表示,巴铁是解决一个问题但有可能制造更大问题的极佳例子。After the trial run on Tuesday, China’s internet filled with questions. How would the bus negotiate turns? What about the many drivers who jump in and out of lanes? And what about vehicles like trucks that are too large to fit under the bus?周二进行首次试运行之后,中国的网络上充满了质疑之声。这种车怎么转弯?对那些突然并线的司机怎么办?卡车之类体积太大无法在巴士下方通行的车辆又该如何?“It might be a fantasy to deploy the ‘elevated bus’ on existing urban road infrastructure,” Beijing Daily said about the idea in June. “It’s very impractical.”“‘空中巴士’利用既有城市道路设施的想法很可能是一厢情愿,”《北京日报》今年6月如此这种创意,“可实施性很差。”It noted that the giant buses would not be able to use the bridges and overpasses in the capital city.它指出,这种体型巨大的巴士将无法通过北京的立交桥。“Even if the ‘elevated bus’ is deployed on ordinary urban roadways, it will need special groundwork, otherwise the roads will be crushed to smithereens before long,” the paper said.“即使‘空中巴士’开行在一般城市道路上,也需要特殊的地基处理,否则用不了多久,城市道路必定被碾压得千疮百孔,”该报道中写道。Mr. Song said that a full bus would have four connected carriages and be able to carry 1,200 passengers, which may make getting on and off an adventure in itself. Turning at broad intersections would not pose a problem, Mr. Song added. The cars underneath the bus would come to a stop and wait while the bus curved the corner.宋有洲表示,整辆巴士会有4节相连的车厢,能搭乘1200名乘客,这也许会让上下客本身成为一种挑战。宋有洲还提到,巴士在大的十字路口转弯不存在问题。巴士转弯时,下方的车辆会停下来等待。“Underneath the bus, traffic lights will be coordinated with the traffic lights on the road so that cars are notified,” he said.“巴铁下面的红绿灯会配合路上的红绿灯,警告下面的车,”他说。Even drivers hardened to the mayhem on China’s roads might be unsettled by the idea of sitting under a bus while red and green lights flash.就算是已经习惯于中国道路混乱状况的司机,或许也会对在一辆有红绿灯闪烁的大巴下行驶的念头感到不安。“This may create some psychological pressure for motorists,” Zhang Jianwu, a professor at the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Shanghai Jiaotong University, told China Youth Daily last month.“可能会给开车的人造成一定心理压力,”上海交通大学汽车研究院教授张建武上月接受《中国青年报》采访时说。But Mr. Song had something to reassure people worried about the newfangled technology.不过,宋有洲也说了一些话来缓解人们对这项新奇技术的担忧。“At the moment, we can’t use driverless technology on the bus,” he said. “We have to have humans at the wheel.”“我们暂时没法靠着无人驾驶技术,”他说。“一定要有人来开我们的巴铁。” /201608/459026

SEOUL, South Korea — Did you ever wonder what it would be like to be at your own funeral? Some South Koreans aren’t waiting to die to find out.韩国首尔——你有没有想过参加自己的葬礼会是什么感觉?一些韩国人不想等到死后才知道。It’s become a trend in recent years to act out a mock funeral service as a way of better appreciating life.为了更珍惜现在的生活,模拟殡仪务近年流行起来。The Hyowon Healing Center in Seoul runs one such program, with financial backing from a funeral service company. 首尔孝圆康复中心(Hyowon Healing Center)就开设了这样一个项目,并得到一家殡仪务公司的资金持。After an instructional lecture and , participants are led into a dimly lit hall decorated with chrysanthemums, where they sit, often tearfully, beside caskets and write their last testaments. 参与者在参加了教学讲座、观看了视频之后,被带到一个装点着菊花的昏暗大厅,他们坐在棺材旁边,常常眼泪汪汪地写下他们的最后遗嘱。Then they put on burial shrouds and lie down in the coffins.然后穿上寿衣,躺进棺材。A grim-looking man dressed in a black robe, the Envoy from the Other World, hammers the lids closed. 一个表情严峻的男人穿着黑色长袍,扮演来自另外一个世界的使者,他把棺材盖上。The participants are left encased in utter darkness for 10 minutes — which can feel like an eternity.参与者在完全的黑暗中度过10分钟——有时候感觉很久很久。There was not a single ray of light coming in, and how I cried in the dark, suffocating coffin! a recent participant wrote in a blog post.里面没有一丝光线,我在黑暗中哭泣,棺材令人窒息!一个参与者最近在一篇客帖子中写道。Jeong Yong-mun, the director of the Hyowon program, said 15,000 people had gone through mock funerals at the center since 2012. 孝圆项目主任郑永门(音)说,自2012年以来,有1.5万人参与了该中心的模拟葬礼。The program is free.该体验是免费的。Some participants had terminal illnesses and wanted help preparing for the end; others had suicidal impulses that they wanted to dispel. 一些人患有绝症,希望参加这个项目有助于为死亡做准备;还有些人有自杀冲动,想要打消这种念头。Businesses send employees as part of a motivational program.一些企业也把这个项目作为员工激励计划的一部分。At the end of the two-and-a-half-hour session, Mr Jeong tells the participants: Now, you have shed your old self. 在两个半小时的体验即将结束时,郑永门会告诉参与者:现在,你已经不再是以前的你了。You are reborn to have a fresh start! It takes a few minutes for them to just, but soon they are chatting, laughing and taking selfies with their coffins.你获得了重生,有了一个新的开始!参加者通常会花几分钟的时间调整情绪,但很快,他们就会开始交谈、欢笑,并与他们的棺材自拍。Mr Jeong said he keeps an eye out for the few morbid souls who seem to feel a little too comfortable in the coffin. 郑永门说,他会留意极少数的病态者,他们似乎觉得在棺材里很舒。But most participants say they feel strangely refreshed afterward, gaining a new perspective on the things that matter in life, like family.但是大多数参与者都表示在体验结束后,有一种奇怪的焕然一新的感觉,对生活中的重要组成部分有了新的视角,比如对家庭。I feel my heart pumping, one participant wrote in a blog post, where she confessed to having thought about suicide before the mock funeral service. 我感觉到自己的心在跳,一个参与者在一篇客帖子中写道,她承认在体验模拟殡仪务之前曾考虑自杀。I am alive!我还活着! /201610/474620

The pledges that countries are making to battle climate change would still allow the world to heat up by more than 6 degrees Fahrenheit, a new analysis shows, a level that scientists say is likely to produce catastrophes ranging from food shortages to widesp extinctions of plant and animal life.一份新的分析报告显示,即使各国已做出对抗气候变化的承诺,也无法阻止全球平均温度上升逾6华氏度。科学家们表示,这个上升水平很可能会带来从粮食短缺到动植物大规模灭绝的种种灾难。Yet, in the world of global climate politics, that counts as progress.不过,在全球气候政治领域,这相当于进步。The new figures will be released Monday in New York as a week of events related to climate change comes to an end. The highlight was an urgent moral appeal at the ed Nations on Friday from Pope Francis, urging countries to reach “fundamental and effective agreements” when they meet in Paris in December to try to strike a new global climate deal.随着为期一周的与气候变化有关的活动接近尾声,相关机构将在周一公布这些新数据。本轮气候活动的亮点在于,教皇方济各(Pope Francis)于周五在联合国发出了急迫的道德呼吁,敦促各个国家今年12月在巴黎召开会议尝试达成新的全球气候协议时,取得“根本性的有效共识”。For much of this year, countries have been issuing pledges about how much emissions they are willing to cut in coming decades. With a plan announced by Brazil on Sunday, every major country except for India has now made a commitment to take to the Paris conference.在今年的许多时间里,各个国家在就未来几十年愿意削减多少排放做出承诺。巴西在周日宣布了自身的计划,使得除了印度之外的大国均在巴黎会议之前给出了承诺。An analysis by researchers at Climate Interactive, a group whose calculations are used by American negotiators and by numerous other governments, is expected to be released Monday and was provided in advance to The New York Times. It shows that the collective pledges would reduce the warming of the planet at century’s end to about 6.3 degrees, if the national commitments are fully honored, from an expected 8.1 degrees Fahrenheit, if emissions continue on their present course.气候互动组织(Climate Interactive)计划于周一发布旗下研究人员撰写的这份分析报告,而《纽约时报》提前获得了全文。美国谈判代表和很多其他国家的政府在使用该组织的预测数据。报告显示,如果排放保持目前的趋势,全球变暖的幅度会在本世纪末达到8.1华氏度(合4.5摄氏度),但如果各国恪守承诺,合起来会令这一数字降至6.3华氏度(合3.5摄氏度)。That would be the biggest reduction in the history of global climate politics, and a sign that 20 years of disappointing negotiations may be giving way to an era when countries start to move the needle on the projected global temperature.这将是全球气候政治历史上最大的降幅,标志着20年来令人失望的谈判可能会被另一个时代替代——各国开始在预期的全球气温变化上造成可见的影响。Yet the analysis also shows that the nations are still a far way from meeting their own shared target, set in 2010, of limiting global warming to about 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit. That level of warming, while potentially producing dire effects on agriculture, sea level and the natural world, might at least be tolerable, some experts believe.但这项报告也显示,这些国家距离他们在2010年设定的共同目标还非常远,即将全球变暖幅度控制在约3.6华氏度(约合2摄氏度)。一些专家认为,这种程度的温度增长,尽管还是会给农业发展、海平面和自然界产生严重影响,但至少在可接受的范围内。The pledges countries have made “are a big step forward, but not sufficient — not even close,” said John D. Sterman, a professor of management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Climate Interactive, a Washington organization with extensive ties to M.I.T., receives foundation money to build tools that help governments and the public understand climate policy.那些作出承诺的国家已经“向前迈进了一大步,但这还不够,远远不够,”麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)管理学教授约翰·D·斯特曼(John D. Sterman)说。一家与麻省理工学院有广泛联系的华盛顿机构“气候互动”(Climate Interactive)获得了来自基金会的资金,以研发可以帮助政府和公众了解气候政策的工具。Making any serious pledge has been a political challenge in many countries, including the ed States, where President Obama has encountered vociferous opposition in Congress. Governments are unlikely to want to reopen those fights in the remaining two months before the Paris talks. Thus, many analysts expect that any final deal struck in Paris will probably not be enough to forestall dangerous levels of global warming.在很多国家,做出严肃的承诺一直都是个政治难题。美国也是这样,奥巴马总统就在国会遭遇了激烈的反对。距离巴黎会议的举行还有两个月,各国政府不会想在这段时间里重新挑起这类争执。所以,很多分析师预测,巴黎会议上最后达成的任何协议可能都不足以提前阻止全球变暖达到危险的程度。“Everyone is now convinced there will be agreement in Paris,” President Fran漀椀猀 Hollande of France said Sunday afternoon at the ed Nations. “But the question is, what kind of agreement?”“所有人现在都确信,巴黎会议会达成一项协议,”法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德(Fran漀椀猀 Hollande)周日下午在联合国讲道。“但问题是,什么样的协议呢?”Despite the uncertainty, optimism is growing among some diplomats and scientists that progress has become possible. Intensive engagement between China and the ed States over the past two years helped break the logjam in global climate politics, and for the first time, virtually every country is now offering to pitch in to help limit emissions growth.尽管有这样的不确定性,但有可能取得进展的乐观情绪还是在一些外交官和科学家中日渐增长。过去两年,中美之间的密集接触帮助打破了全球气候政治中的僵局,第一次出现基本上每个国家都愿意参与和帮助限制排放增长的局面。Janos Pasztor, ed Nations assistant secretary general for climate change, said the task in Paris would be to put mechanisms into the deal to encourage countries to ramp up their ambitions over time. Requirements for periodic reviews and fresh pledges are under discussion as a potential part of the agreement.联合国负责气候变化问题的助理秘书长的扎诺斯·帕兹尔(Janos Pasztor)表示,巴黎会议的任务是为将要达成的协议设定机制,以鼓励各个国家在以后随着时间推移进一步提高本国的限排目标。定期检查和更新承诺的要求已经纳入讨论,有可能成为一项协议内容。At a luncheon that the ed Nations secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, hosted for dozens of world leaders on Sunday, the heads of state and government “agreed that Paris must be the floor, not the ceiling, for collective ambition,” Mr. Ban said afterward.周日,在联合国秘书长潘基文(Ban Ki-moon)为几十位国家领导人举行的午宴上,各国元首和政府首脑“一致同意,巴黎会议上的协定一定得是各国都能达成的基础目标,而不是上限,”潘基文在午宴之后说道。Gavin A. Schmidt, head of the NASA unit in Manhattan that studies climate change, said that the history of environmental cleanup suggested that once countries got started on the problem, they would discover that solving it was cheaper and easier than expected.位于曼哈顿、研究气候变化的美国宇航局(NASA )分机构的负责人加文·A·施密特(Gavin A. Schmidt)表示,环境净化的历史显示,一旦各个国家开始致力解决这一问题,就会发现,解决它比想象得要容易,成本也没那么高。“By the time people get 10, 15 years of actually trying to do something, that’s going to lead to greater expertise, better technology, more experience,” Dr. Schmidt said. “People will then say, ‘Oh, you know what? We can commit to do more.’ ”“等到人们真的开始努力做这件事10年、15年之后,会出现更好的专业知识和技术,经验也更加丰富,”施密特士说。“那时人们会说,‘嘿,你知道吗?我们可以作出更大的承诺。’”The planet has aly warmed by about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit above the temperature that prevailed before the Industrial Revolution, representing an enormous addition of heat. Virtually every piece of land ice on Earth is melting, the sea ice in the Arctic is collapsing, droughts and other weather extremes are intensifying, and the global food system has shown signs of instability.相比于工业革命以前,我们这个星球的整体温度已经增加了约1.5华氏度(合0.8摄氏度),这代表着额外增加了庞大的热量。地球上每一块岸冰基本上都在消融,北极的海冰正在破裂,干旱和其他极端天气问题也在加重,全球粮食体系已经显示出不稳定的迹象。At a meeting in Cancun, Mexico, in 2010, climate negotiators from nearly 200 countries agreed that they would try to limit the warming to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or 2 degrees Celsius, above the preindustrial temperature, a level that would require that emissions from fossil fuels largely cease within a few decades.2010年,在墨西哥坎昆举行的一个会议上,来自将近两百个国家的气候问题谈判代表表示,他们同意尽力将气候变暖控制在高出工业革命前全球温度3.6华氏度(合2摄氏度)的程度。而要想实现这一点,将需要在几十年内大致消除矿物燃料类排放。Subsequently, recognizing that many governments were reluctant to agree to binding limits, the diplomats essentially asked each country to volunteer its best efforts. That decision, controversial at the time, has unlocked a willingness by many nations to participate, including countries like China that had long resisted climate deals.随后,因为意识到很多国家不愿接受有约束力的排放限制,外交官们基本上只是要求每个国家主动提出自己能实现的最高目标。这一决策在当时存在争议,但却解决了很多国家不愿意参与的问题,其中就包括中国等长期对任何气候协议抱有抵制情绪的国家。India is the biggest holdout so far, but that nation’s environment minister, Prakash Javadekar, said in an interview in New York on Sunday that a plan would be submitted to the ed Nations on Oct. 1, the eve of the national celebration of Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday — apparently an effort to limit domestic criticism that India is bowing to Western pressure. The plan is not expected to include a target year for India’s emissions to peak, but will be “anchored” by a major commitment to renewable energy, Mr. Javadekar said.目前,态度最消极的国家是印度,但印度环境部长普拉卡什·雅瓦德卡尔(Prakash Javadekar)在周日接受纽约时报采访时表示,印度会在十月一日向联合国提交一份计划。那时正值印度举国庆祝圣雄甘地(Mahatma Gandhi)诞辰的前夕,选择这时间点似乎是为减少印度民众批评政府向西方社会压力低头的可能性。外界预测,这一计划不会包含在某一目标年份达到印度最高排放量的内容,但雅瓦德卡尔说,它“肯定会”包含有关使用再生能源的重要承诺。Last week, China announced plans for a nationwide system that would put a price on emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil became the latest major country to pledge action, on Sunday, with a plan that makes it the first large developing nation to offer an absolute cut in emissions over the next decade, instead of just restraints on continued growth. Brazil also committed to ending illegal deforestation and to restoring millions of acres of degraded forest.中国上周宣布计划,要建立一个全国性系统,对温室气体的排放定价。巴西则在周日成为最新一个承诺采取行动的主要国家。巴西的计划让它成了首个表示要让未来十年的排放绝对减少,而不只是对持续增长设限的大型发展中国家。巴西还承诺终结森林的非法砍伐,并让数以百万亩计的退化森林恢复健康。Bruising fights are still expected at the Paris conference, especially over money. Poor countries that have had little to do with causing global warming, but are likely to suffer the worst effects, are demanding billions from rich countries to help them manage.巴黎的会议上预计依然会出现激烈的争吵,特别是围绕资金。贫困国家几乎和全球变暖的成因毫不相干,但受到的影响却可能是最严重的。这些国家要求富裕国家提供数十亿资金,以帮助它们应对影响。Moreover, protests are expected from advocacy groups, island countries threatened with inundation, and many others over the perceived inadequacy of the deal. At a minimum, these groups are likely to demand strong procedures for ratcheting up national commitments over time.此外,倡导团体、面临被淹没威胁的岛国和其他很多人预计会为他们眼中协议的不足之处而进行抗议。至少,这些团体可能会要求采取强有力的步骤,以便随着时间的推移而加强各国的承诺。“No one doubts that coming out of Paris, there’s going to be an ambition gap on the table,” said Alden Meyer, who follows climate negotiations for the Union of Concerned Scientists, in Washington. “The question is going to be, what prospect do we have to shrink it, and how quickly?”“没人怀疑巴黎会议结束后,谈判桌上会出现目标上的差异,”忧思科学家联盟(Union of Concerned Scientists)关注气候谈判的奥尔登·迈耶(Alden Meyer)在华盛顿说。“问题将是我们的减排前景是什么,以及速度是多快?” /201510/401919

China#39;s property market continued to cool as total floor space of sold apartments in major Chinese cities in November suffered the first year-on-year decline in 21 months.今年11月,我国主要城市住宅销售总面积21个月以来首次同比下滑,房地产市场继续降温。Last month, some 19.9m sq m were sold in 30 major cities, a 4.2% drop from the same period last year, according to data compiled by E-house China Research and Development Institute.易居研究院汇编的数据显示,上个月,30个主要城市住宅销售面积约为1990万平方米,同比减少4.2%。On a monthly basis, the fall was 10.5%, with Beijing shedding 7.9% and Shanghai dropping 24.6%, respectively.从环比角度来看,这一数字下降了10.5%。北京和上海的环比降幅分别为7.9%和24.6%。Second- and third-tier cities also posted month-on-month declines, with Hangzhou and Suzhou leading the retreat.二、三线城市也出现了环比下跌,其中以杭州和苏州的跌幅最大。Chinese authorities introduced a slew of measures in October to rein in house prices and contain speculative house purchases, including purchase limits and tougher mortgage limits.为控制房价、抑制投机性购房,我国政府在10月出台了限购和收紧房贷限制等多项措施。The year-on-year decline is expected to continue in December with less speculative home buyers, said Yan Yuejin, senior researcher with E-house China Research and Development Institute.易居研究院资深研究员严跃进称,随着投机购房者的减少,12月有望延续同比下滑态势。It proves the effectiveness of the cooling policies and means narrowed home price rises, Yan said.严跃进表示,这一结果明了冷却政策及减小房价上涨幅度手段的有效性。 /201612/482785

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