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2018年01月20日 22:53:33来源:飞度快对话网

If youre like many people, when you think of algae you picture the unsightly green film that forms on neglected swimming pools and fish tanks.如许多人一样,当你想到藻类的时候,你会在脑海中即刻闪现出在无人问津的游泳池和鱼池里表面覆盖着一层难看的绿膜的画面。Scientists, however, have made some discoveries that might change the way you think about this common plant.然而科学家的发现却可以改变你对这种普通植物的看法。Researchers are working on ways to use algae to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels to powercars, trucks, and even airplanes.研究人员正致力于如何利用藻类来减少我们对用化石燃料发动小车,卡车甚至飞机的依赖。Algae has attracted attention because it is simple and economicalto grow and carries fewer financial and environmental costs when compared to other alternatives.藻类会引起科学家们的注意是因为相对于其它可选择的燃料来说,种植藻类更简单,经济,并且花费的财政和环境成本较少。Algae needs only water to grow, and can use fresh water, salt water, marshlands, and evenwastewater for a habitat.只要有水藻类就可以存活,它可以在淡水,咸水,沼泽地,甚至污水中生长。The plants highly-adapted photosynthesis process allows it to thriveanywhere that abundant sunshine can be found.该植物高度适应的光合作用过程让其在任何阳光充足的地方都能茁壮成长。And even sunshine is optional for this versatile plant because scientists have discovered ways to grow algae in the dark using sugar as a food source.甚是阳光也只是一个可选择的条件,因为科学家们发现通过把糖作为食物来源也可以在黑暗中种植藻类。To use algae as a replacement for fossil fuels, oil is extracted from the plant and developed into abiofuel that can be burned in diesel engines.若用藻类代替化石燃料,油就会从植物中提取出来,并被加工为可以在柴油机中燃烧的生物燃料。The yield produced from the algae has proven fargreater than other biofuels currently being developed.藻类的产量大大高于目前正在开发的其他生物燃料。For example, soy produces an averageyield of fifty gallons of biofuel per acre per year.例如,大豆平均每年每英亩可生产五十加仑的生物燃料。Canola, another common alternative, producesroughly 130 gallons of biofuel per acre per year.菜籽,另一种常见的替代品,平均每年每英亩大约可生产130加仑。In contrast, scientists have found that algae can produce up to 4,000 gallons of biofuel per acre per year.与此相反,科学家们发现藻类平均每年每英亩可生产达4000加仑。In addition, because algae can be grown on water rather than land and without fertilizers, it may prove to be a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative to the biofuels in use today.此外,藻类可以在水中而不是陆地上生长,也不需要施肥。因此可以明目前在使用的生物燃料中它是更有效更环保的替代品。In the future, then, when you see algae you might think about more than just pond scum!未来,当你看到藻类的时候你或许想到的不仅仅是“池塘败类”。201409/332188。

  • Waxing lyrical复刻音乐Why one British record shop is thriving一家英国唱片店的兴起VISITING Rough Trade, a west London record shop, in the 1970s and 1980s was like going on a pilgrimage. Young men and a few women would gather to discuss the latest releases and swap records, overseen by knowledgeable (if sometimes surly) staff. But Rough Trades latest business venture tests the limits of faith. On November 25th it will open a colossal, 15,000-square-foot music store in New York.在上世纪七八十年代,漫步于地处伦敦西部的Rough Trade唱片店是一次对英伦音乐的朝圣。通常,一些青年男子和为数不多的女子聚集于此,在看似专业的店员眼皮子下讨论最新发行唱片或交换各自珍藏。但最近Rough Trade的最新商业计划—于11月25日在纽约开张的15,000平方尺的超大音像店的这一计划着实令人震惊。Between 2001 and 2012 the number of independent music shops in Britain fell by 69%. Over the same period physical album sales fell by 68%. The American market is no healthier. Expanding in either country seems barmy.在2001年至2012年间,英国独立音像店的数量减少了69%,与此同时,实体专辑的发售量也下降了68%,实际上美国的音像市场也并没有好多少,因此此时无论是在这其中哪个国家扩大店面都不太切合实际。Rough Trade was once both a shop and an independent record label, which released albums by the Fall and the Smiths; the two businesses have been separate since 1982. For years the store was less well-known. But it has fared well. In 2007 it opened a branch in an airy warehouse in the East End. Since then Rough Trades annual turnover has risen by around 20% a year, according to Stephen Godfroy, its executive director.Rough Trade曾以一家独立唱片公司的身份为the Fall和the Smiths乐队发行过专辑,同时它也做着音像商店的生意,这二者直至1982年才分别独立开来。自那之后的几年时间里,音像店一直都不太出名,好在现已逐渐好转。2007年Rough Trade在伦敦东区的一个通风仓库里开设一家分店,其执行董事斯蒂芬·戈德弗鲁瓦表示,从那时起Rough Trade每年的营业额都会上涨20%左右。The East End store is not just spacious and cheap to rent. It also nails something that many in the music business have tried for years to get right: how to capture the valuable aura around music. The store has a cafe, a book stall and a stage as well as lots of records and CDs. Rough Trade sells not just music but the idea of being a music lover: it is the musical equivalent of Daunt Books, a thriving independent bookstore. None of its records are priced at a discount.事实上,东区的音像店不仅空间宽敞,租金便宜,还为许多音乐市场多年来一直试图明确的东西树立起风向标。例如,在如何最大限度地利用其他方面来充实音乐这一问题上,这家商店配备了咖啡厅、书摊甚至还有一个舞台,当然还有许多唱片和CD。Rough Trade试图传达这样一个理念:它不仅仅是在销售音乐,而实际上是一种音乐爱好者的信仰。它就像是贩卖音乐的Daunt Books(一家很受欢迎的独立经营书店),而且它所有的唱片都不打折。The rising popularity of vinyl, which accounts for half of Rough Trades stock, is another key to its success. Between 2007 and 2012 record sales in Britain increased by 88%, albeit from a tiny base. Records are increasingly desirable not so much because of the way they sound as because they are distinctive and rare—precious qualities in a world of ubiquitous free music. “People like to show off what they have bought,” says Spencer Hickman, who runs a record label.占Rough Trade一半库存的黑胶唱片目前越来越受到人们的追捧,这也是促成Rough Trade成功运作的另一关键因素。2007至2012年间,在销售基数量很少的情况下,英国唱片发售量仍上涨了88%。事实上,人们对这些唱片表现出不断增长的热情并不是因为它们的音质,而是由于在这个充斥着免费流行乐的时代,唱片的与众不同和数量稀少的特点在人们看来是弥足珍贵的特点。经营一家唱片公司的斯宾塞·希克曼(Spencer Hickman)对此表示,“人们喜欢炫耀他们所买的东西。”Vinyl is more popular in America, too: between 2007 and 2012 sales swelled from m to 3m. But not all are convinced Rough Trade will succeed in New York. The East End shop is aly so big that customers are overwhelmed, says Tim Chambers, a British music consultant; it could almost be mistaken for a large chain store. The New York shop will be three times larger. There may turn out to be a trade-off between trendiness and sheer size.相比之下,黑胶唱片在美国的受欢迎程度更甚一筹。2007至2012年间,其销售额由2300万美元飙升至1.63亿美元。但不是所有人都对Rough Trade在纽约的发展充满信心。一位英国音乐顾问蒂姆·钱伯斯(Tim Chambers)说,其东区的店铺已经如此之大,以至于超出一些顾客的承受范围,这种大型连锁商店无可避免会犯错误,而纽约的店面是这家店面的三倍,未来这家店可能要潮流经营和庞大的规模经营之中做出选择。译者:尤熠 校对:姜开锋 译文属译生译世 /201511/409744。
  • Race relations in America美国种族问题The lessons of Ferguson弗格森的教训There is no excuse for rioting. But smarter policing would make it less likely暴乱无可原谅,但有能力的警察能尽力避免冲突。AFTER more than a week of rioting in Ferguson, Missouri, what can America learn? The first and simplest lesson is that cops should wear cameras. Knowing that they are being recorded, the police would be less likely to shoot suspects, and vice versa. Also, had Officer Darren Wilson been wearing a camera on August 9th, Americans would know what happened just before he shot and killed Michael Brown, an unarmed black 18-year-old. As it is, there are two conflicting stories and no way to choose between them. The police say that Mr Brown attacked Mr Wilson and tried to wrestle away his gun. In the ensuing struggle the officer, fearing for his life, shot and killed the teenager. Mr Browns friend, who was with him at the time, gives a completely different account: he says the officer grabbed Mr Brown by the neck and later shot him as he was trying to surrender. Early autopsy results show that Mr Brown was hit by at least six bullets but do not settle the dispute.经过超过一周的密苏里弗格森骚乱,美国能学到些什么?首先,最简单的一点,警察应该携带影像记录设备。当值班过程被记录下来,警察射击嫌犯的概率将降低,反之亦然。同时,假如戴伦·威尔逊警官在八月九日执勤时配戴相机,民众就能直观了解景观开射击了一位18岁的黑人青年迈克尔·布朗,布朗当时手无寸铁。关于此事,两个截然不同的说法无法实,警方的说法是布朗袭击了威尔逊警官,并试图抢夺他的。威尔逊警官由于生命受到威胁,开打死了这位黑人青年布朗。与布朗先生同在案发现场的朋友提供了一个完全不同的说法:警察抓住了布朗先生的脖子,后来布朗想自首的时候被开杀死了。早期的尸检结果表明,布朗身中至少六发的子弹,但这未能成为事件有力的据。His death sparked protests that soon turned violent. Looters smashed up shops and picked them clean. The police responded with a staggering display of force, rolling military-style armoured cars onto the streets, pointing rifles at the protesters, dispersing crowds with tear gas and detaining not only rioters but also peaceful demonstrators and journalists.他的死引发了暴力性的抗议活动。暴徒砸毁抢光了店铺,警方对此做出强有力的回应,将军用装甲车开上街道,用实荷弹震慑,用催泪瓦斯驱散人群,并逮捕暴徒,甚至和平示威者和记者。There is a racial gulf in how these events are perceived. Some 65% of black Americans think the police went too far in responding to the protests; only 33% of whites agree. Many blacks in Ferguson disbelieve anything the police say. Mr Browns family describe him as a gentle giant. The Ferguson police beg to differ:they released a purportedly showing him violently robbing a liquor store minutes before he met Officer Wilson. Some locals dismissed this as a smear. The liquor store was promptly looted.有一个种族隔阂的说法能说明这些事件是如何发生的。大约65%的黑人认为警察对抗议活动的反应过于激烈,只有33%的白人同意警方的做法。在弗格森许多黑人不相信任何警察的话。布朗先生的家人将他描述为一个温和的巨人。弗格森警方不敢苟同:他们发布了一个视频,据称是他遇到警官威尔逊之前几分钟暴力抢劫酒类商店。一些当地人否认了视频内容。该酒类商店经常被抢劫。Rioting will do nothing to resolve Fergusons problems. On the contrary, it will make businesses flee, leaving locals with fewer jobs and shops. So the immediate priority is to restore order. Next, the investigations of the shooting aly under way must be pursued vigorously and transparently. In the longer term, America should ponder three things.暴乱无益于解决弗格森的问题。相反,它将使商铺离开弗格森,造成一部分人失业。所以当务之急是维持秩序。下一步,正在进行的案件调查应该更加仔细和彻底。从长远来看,美国人应该思考三个问题。To protect and serve保护民众,务民众First, as Barack Obama noted on August 18th, “there is a big difference between our military and our local law enforcement and we dont want those lines blurred.” In fact, those lines have aly been blurred, as the armoured cars on the streets of Ferguson attest. In 2012, according to the FBI, American police officers shot and killed 409 people. Their British counterparts shot and killed no one. The German police, who unlike the Brits are routinely armed, shot and killed eight people; the Japanese have killed one in the past six years. In their defence, American cops face greater risks than those in other rich countries. The civilians they meet are often armed; small wonder they are jumpy when they cannot see your hands.首先,正如奥巴马总统八月十八日所说,“这是我们的军事和当地执法部门之间行事原则上的差异,我们不想要部门之间的界线模糊。“事实上,这些界线已经模糊,在弗格森的街道行驶装甲车就是明。根据美国联邦调查局的统计,首先,正如巴拉克奥巴马指出,八月十八日,“这是我们的军事和当地执法部门之间的大的差异,我们不想要那些线模糊。“事实上,这些线路已经模糊,在弗格森的街道的装甲车的明。2012,美国警察开打死409人。他们的英国同行未打死一个嫌犯。德国警方,他们不像英国人,配备常规武器,开打死八人;日本在过去六年中已经杀死了一人。在他们的正当防卫的范围内,美国警察面对比其他发达国家更大的危险。他们面对持的平民,也难怪他们看不到嫌犯双手时,心情多么紧张。Yet this is a reason for cops to work harder to improve relations with the communities they serve. Many police forces in America are good at this, but some have developed a warrior culture that stresses brute force over pounding the beat. A Pentagon programme that gives surplus military hardware to local law-enforcement agencies can make them seem like occupying armies rather than public servants. That is both costly and counterproductive—the public are more likely to volunteer information to officers they trust than to those they fear.然而,这也正是警察努力改善与所务的社区关系的原因。许多美国警察部队懂得如何与社区打成一片,但也有一些警察崇尚强权镇压的方针。有一个国防部的项目将冗余的军事装备给予地方执法机构,这使他们看起来像是占领军而不是公务员。这是花钱起到反作用的项目,因为对于执法者来说,公众的信任比畏惧更加可贵。Second, unlike plumbers or accountants, it matters what colour police officers are. Fergusons population has shifted from 75% white in 1990 to 67% black in 2010, but the police force is still 95% white. This is partly due to bureaucratic inertia. Public servants have rock-solid job security and generous pensions, so the workforce turns over slowly. A fast-food joint in a town that becomes Hispanic will quickly hire Spanish-speaking cashiers. The police are much slower to hire officers with a feel for a changing community. This is not to say that Ferguson should have sacked the white officers and replaced them with blacks; that would be illegal. But it ought to be easier to shift officers between towns, bring in fresh faces and retrain the old hands to be more racially sensitive.第二,不像管道工和会计师,警官的肤色似乎也影响到办案过程。弗格森的黑人人口已从1990年的75%变为2010年到67%,但警察中仍然是95%的白人。一是因为官僚主义的传统,公务员失业风险低,待遇相对较好,工作节奏相对较慢。而其他岗位不如公务员稳定,比如快餐店的收银员就可以随时雇佣母语为西班牙语的雇员。社区警察却很难让不同背景警员适应社区治安工作。这虽然不是说弗格森应该用黑人警官代替白人警官,这也不合法,但这样的做法应该能更加方便开展社区工作,也能减少因为种族问题带来的不便。Third, policing would be a lot easier, and race relations a little more cordial, if America legalised drugs. One reason why so many African-Americans distrust the police is that so many young black men are sent to prison for non-violent drug offences. If drugs were legal, no one would be patted down for pills or jailed for possessing them. Illicit drug gangs would go out of business. And the police would be able to concentrate on tracking down thieves and rapists, making everyone safer. Legalising marijuana would be a good first step, following the examples of Colorado and Washington state.第三,假如美国让民间药品流通合法,警察会轻松很多,种族问题也能得到缓和。如此多的非洲裔美国人之所以不信任警察是因为许多年轻的黑人男性由于违禁药品犯罪入狱。如果药物是合法的,没有人会因为药物而入狱。非法贩卖药物团伙自然会消失。和警察能够专注于追捕小偷,强奸犯,使社区更加安全。在科罗拉多州和华盛顿州,大麻合法化将是一个很好的尝试。The ills of shrinking rust-belt towns with tetchy race relations cannot be fixed quickly. But the broken windows of Ferguson should remind Americas leaders that they have to try.有种族矛盾问题缠身的城镇不能迅速解决。但弗格森的惨剧应该提醒美国领导人,他们必须解决类似的问题。 /201409/329640。
  • Like that! They cant!They are just excited to see you.就像那样 她们确实听不见你的声音 他们就是见到你太兴奋了。Its not even about you singing.You could probobly pretend to sing,和你唱不唱歌没关系。 你可以仅仅装作是在唱歌,you can just move your mouth like that cat,its doing that right now,就像这只猫一样,动动你的嘴, 现在那只猫就在这么做呢 ,All you have to do is talk,And then people would think that youre singing.你所要做的就是动动嘴, 然后人们就会认为你是在唱歌And lets talk about the book,So you have a book我们来说说你的书吧。 你出了一本书,And it is uhh First Step 2 Forever:My Story叫做走向永恒的第一步:我的故事。It is really your first step to forever What a giant step youve taken too.这确实是你走向永远的第一步 这也是很大,很有分量的一步。Yeah.I mean, Your life has changed,drastically Very much, yeah,恩,是啊。 我的意思是,你的生活改变了,彻彻底底的改变了。恩,确实是有非常大的改变。from the beginning to, like, here is like,There are so much cool stuff that Ive gotten to do.从一开始到现在 就像是 我可以做很多非常酷的事情,You know travel the world,I never really thought that, you know, that this was possible.比如说,环游世界开个唱啦, 我从来没有想到过我会有可能做这些事情。。And uhh, you know, I wanna thank all my fans for making this possible.我想谢谢我的歌迷, 是她们让这一切成为现实。Thank your fans? You got great fans.Yeah.感谢你的歌迷 你的歌迷真的很棒。 是啊。And I think,If there is anybody that can address this bullying problem that we are having right now,我觉得,如果有任何人有资格对 目前恃强欺弱的行为发表的话,its someone who actually is as popular as you are.那就是一个像你一样的出名的人。And you experienced not just probably before the fame but even since the fame.你出名之前就知道被欺负的滋味, 甚至出名之后也有人对你说三道四You have something recently, and you are just What would you say to people that are being bullied right now?最近有没有什么事情发生 你想跟那些正在被欺负的人说些什么 /201604/435137。
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