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As a state-run programming contest gets under way in a modernist glass building close to Seoul, a few dozen 20-somethings roam the venue, clad in black or white T-shirts and hoping their coding skills will win them a share of the Won27m (,000) prize money.在邻近首尔的一幢现代主义风格的玻璃幕墙大楼里,一场由政府组织的编程大赛正在进行,几十位20多岁的年轻人在会场上走动,身穿黑色或白色T恤,期待自己的编程技能赢得2700万韩元(合2.4万美元)奖金的一部分。The event is hosted by the creative economy centre at Bundang, south of South Korea’s capital. It is one of a network of 17 such institutions being rolled out across the country that offer workspace, funding and advice to start-ups and budding entrepreneurs.此次比赛由首尔以南的创新经济中心盆唐(Bundang)主办。盆唐是韩国在全国设立的17个创新中心中的一员,向初创企业和初露头角的企业家提供办公场所、资金和建议。Along with a new ministry of future planning, the centres are the most visible manifestation of the government’s “creative economy” agenda — President Park Geun-hye’s drive to foster start-ups and ease the country’s economic reliance on a small number of large business groups, known as chaebols, such as Samsung and Hyundai.这些创新中心与韩国新设的未来规划部,都是韩国政府“创意经济”议程的最明显体现。韩国总统朴槿惠(Park Geun-hye)计划借助这项议程,培育初创企业,减轻该国经济对少数大企业集团的依赖,这些大企业被称为财阀,例如三星(Samsung)和现代(Hyundai)。The push follows four consecutive years of growth below 4 per cent — unusually slow by South Korean standards — sparking concern that the country may struggle to close the gap with the world’s richest economies. Attention has focused on the weakness of the small and medium-sized business sector, which has fallen steadily behind the country’s manufacturing giants in terms of productivity.韩国经济增速已连续4年低于4%,按照韩国的标准低得异乎寻常,这令外界担心,韩国可能难以弥补与全球最富经济体之间的差距。韩国政府的注意力放在中小企业的劣势方面,这些企业的生产率与该国制造业巨擘之间的距离越来越大。Half a century ago, the president’s father, military ruler Park Chung-hee, put the chaebols at the heart of his transformative industrial policy. Now, in a twist that demonstrates the lingering influence of the state over the conglomerates, Ms Park has enlisted the country’s leading business groups in her own signature economic push: this time aimed at curbing their dominance by fostering a new generation of businesses.半个世纪以前,朴槿惠的父亲、军事统治者朴正熙(Park Chung-hee)把这些财阀列为其工业政策改革的核心。如今,朴槿惠动员韩国领先企业集团配合她的标志性经济计划:这一次的目标是通过培育新一代企业来削弱财阀的霸主地位,这突显出韩国政府对这些综合企业仍有影响力。The centre at Bundang, for example, is run by telecoms group KT, which is providing most of the operation’s Won6.2bn annual budget and has deployed experienced staff to run it. “That one costs ,000, that one costs ,000#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;that big one is 0,000,” says Ju Young-beom, one of those staff, pointing to 3D printers provided for the seven start-ups enjoying rent-free space in the building.举例来说,设在盆唐的创新中心由韩国电信(KT)管理,在该中心62亿韩元的年度预算中,韩国电信提供了其中的大部分资金,并派出有经验的员工管理。其中一名员工Ju Young-beom指着为7家在这座大楼享受零租金待遇的初创企业提供的3D打印机说:“这台价格为4万美元,那台5万美元……大的那台是10万美元。”Each of the other 16 centres has been put under one of the country’s leading chaebols. Samsung Electronicshas set up two centres in the southeastern cities of Daegu and Gumi, while Hyundai Motorhas done so in the southwestern city of Gwangju. Ms Park has attended the launch of each of the 12 opened so far.其他16家创新中心也都由韩国领先财阀之一运营。三星电子(Samsung Electronics)在东南部城市大邱和龟尾开设了两家创新中心,现代汽车(Hyundai Motor)也在西南部城市光州设立了创新中心。朴槿惠参加了目前已开设的全部12家创新中心的开业仪式。But critics of the scheme question whether the business culture of the chaebols — which emerged as state-fostered, largely heavy industrial concerns — makes them best placed to nurture the sort of creative, dynamic start-ups able to compete with those emerging from Silicon Valley.但批评该计划的人士质疑,这些财阀的企业文化(由政府培育,大部分为重工业企业)究竟是否适合培育那种富有活力和创造力、能够与来自硅谷的企业竞争的初创企业?“Hierarchy and habit are very important parts of Korean corporate life,” says Chung Yeon-woo, a professor at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology who was previously a senior car designer at Hyundai.韩国蔚山科学技术大学(Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology)教授、曾经在现代担任高级汽车设计师的Chung Yeon-woo表示:“等级制度和习惯是韩国企业界非常重要的组成部分。”The network could end up undermining its stated goal by hardening the grip of the chaebols on the economy, he warns. “In the end, all the small companies with good ideas will be bought by the big companies,” Mr Chung says, “and those left will not be the really good ones.”他警告称,这个网络最终反而可能加大这些财阀对经济的掌控,从而破坏其宣告的目标。“到最后,那些拥有优秀创意的小企业都会被大企业收购,”他表示,“剩下的不会是真正优秀的企业。”Such acquisitions would “not necessarily be a bad thing”, says Lee Je-joon, the official tasked with overseeing the creative economy centres at the future planning ministry.韩国未来规划部负责监督创新经济中心的官员Lee Je-joon表示,此类并购“不一定是坏事”。In a recent report on South Korean start-ups, the consultancy McKinsey cited the chaebols’ lack of interest in acquiring small companies as a major factor deterring investment in the latter and slowing “the circulation of capital and human resources”. Among South Korean start-up owners who sold equity in their companies in 2013, only 0.4 per cent did so through takeovers, compared with 61 per cent in the US, it said.在最近一份有关韩国初创企业的报告中,咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey)把财阀缺乏收购小公司的兴趣列为阻碍对小公司投资以及减缓“资本和人力资源流通”的一个重要因素。报告称,在2013年出售公司股本的韩国初创企业所有者中,只有0.4%是通过收购完成的,而美国的这个比例高达61%。Rallying investor interest is a major plank of the creative economy agenda. Seoul has rolled out new funding schemes, including a state-backed fund with about bn in capital, with much of the cash dispensed through mechanisms that “match” venture capital injections up to seven times over.提振投资者兴趣是韩国创意经济议程的一个主要方面。韩国政府推出了新的融资计划,包括一只由政府持的基金,拥有大约40亿美元资本,其中相当大一部分资金是与风投配合发放的,最多达到风资规模的7倍。This appears to have helped spur significant growth in the sector. Venture capital funds in South Korea raised Won2.5tn last year, triple the amount in 2012, according to the Korea Venture Capital Association.此举似乎帮助推动了韩国风投行业的大幅增长。根据韩国风投协会(Korea Venture Capital Association)的数据,去年,韩国风投基金募资2.5万亿韩元,是2012年的3倍。Government financial support has also helped drive a proliferation of start-up incubators and accelerators in Seoul’s upmarket Gangnam area — some of which are competing with the state-backed centres to support budding companies.政府资金持还帮助推动了首尔高档地段江南区初创企业孵化器和加速器的增多,其中一些机构正与由政府持的创新中心竞相向初创企业提供持。The latest was launched by Google, which this year set up Campus Seoul, providing workspace for eight of the 150 local start-ups that applied. The companies — some of which have benefited from the government’s funding schemes — receive advice and support from Maru 180, a non-profit venture established by the shipbuilder Hyundai Heavy Industries before Ms Park came to power.最新项目是由谷歌(Google)发起的,今年谷歌创建了首尔创业校园(Campus Seoul),为提出申请的150家本地初创企业中的8家提供办公场所。这些公司(其中一些已受益于韩国政府的融资计划)获得了由非盈利风投机构Maru 180的建议和扶持,Maru 180是由造船企业现代重工(Hyundai Heavy Industries)在朴槿惠上台之前创建的。“We believe that investing in these economies is going to produce financial return for us down the road, when more companies are created, coming online, using the internet, using Google,” says Mary Grove, head of Google for Entrepreneurs, a unit of Google that supports start-ups in more than 100 countries.在100多个国家持初创企业的谷歌旗下部门Google for Entrepreneurs主管玛丽#8226;格罗夫(Mary Grove)表示:“我们认为,投资于这些经济体未来将为我们带来经济回报,届时会有更多的企业创建、上线、利用互联网、使用谷歌。”South Korea aly ranks among the top five producers of mobile apps for Google’s Android smartphone system, she says, with the number of IT start-ups increasing by an average of 10 per cent a year over the past four years.她表示,韩国已列在谷歌安卓(Android)智能手机操作系统的五大移动应用生产国之列,过去4年,IT初创企业数量平均每年增加10%。South Korea’s conglomerates, by contrast, showed little interest in supporting start-ups before the new policy push, says Ryu Jung-hee, chief executive of FuturePlay, an accelerator providing funding and technical support to start-ups in Seoul. “It’s not organic, not natural [for them],” he says.向首尔初创企业提供资金和技术持的加速器机构FuturePlay首席执行官Ryu Jung-hee表示,相比之下,在政府发起新的政策努力之前,韩国企业集团对于扶持初创企业没什么兴趣。他表示:“(对他们来说),这么做不自然,不正常。”But attitudes have changed. Ihm Jong-tae, who heads the creative economy centre run by SK, the country’s third-biggest chaebol, in the western city of Daejeon, says: “There aren’t many things that SK can do alone any more. The group needs to change its portfolio, and open innovation is one of the most feasible ways to do that.”但这些大企业的态度已发生变化。为韩国第三大财阀SK在韩国西部城市大田执掌创新经济中心的Ihm Jong-tae表示:“SK依靠一己之力能做的事情不是很多了。集团需要改变其业务组合,而开放式创新是最可行的方法之一。”Mr Ihm leads the way to a 3D printer room at the Daejeon centre and points out a prototype camera case printed by The S, an action camera maker that is one of 10 start-ups hosted there.Ihm Jong-tae把记者带到了大田创新中心的一个3D打印室,指着一个由运动型摄像机制造商The S打印的相机包原型。该公司是入住该中心的10家初创企业之一。“Traditional Korean culture is that the big companies are the kings and the small ones are their servants,” says Lee Min-gu, co-founder of The S, which is hoping to win a grant of Won200m from SK in exchange for 1.5 per cent of its revenue over the next five years. “But I think it’s changing, it’s getting better.”“在韩国传统文化中,大企业是国王,小企业是仆人,”The S联席创始人Lee Min-gu表示,“但我认为情况在发生变化,变得更好。”The S希望从SK获得2亿韩元的拨款,作为交换,SK将获得该公司未来5年收入的1.5%。 /201507/383708。

For six years, emerging markets have lived in a world defined by the US Federal Reserve’s policies of easy money. Tides of liquidity have flowed from developed to developing economies, financing infrastructure and corporate investment and allowing consumers to indulge credit-fuelled retail dreams.六年来,新兴市场一直处在美联储(Federal Reserve)宽松货币政策所营造的世界里。一股又一股流动性洪流从发达经济体涌向发展中经济体,为基础设施和企业投资提供资金,还让消费者陶醉于信贷助燃的消费梦想。Thus, the Fed’s announcement yesterday that it would draw quantitative easing to an end represents both a watershed and a leap into the unknown.因此,美联储昨日宣布量化宽松(QE)政策结束,既是一个分水岭,也代表着纵身跳入一个未知世界。The end of asset purchases comes at a challenging time for emerging markets, beset by a confluence of adverse and interconnected trends. China’s economy is slowing, as is the eurozone led by subpar German demand.美联储终止资产购买计划之际,适逢新兴市场进入一个充满挑战的时期,受到各种相互关联的不利趋势的困扰。中国经济正在放缓,受德国需求不足拖累的欧元区也是如此。Commodity prices are in a prolonged slump. Meanwhile, asset prices and debt levels in many developing countries remain at elevated levels following six years of liquidity inflows.大宗商品——包括石油、基础金属和一些粮食——价格已陷入持续低迷。与此同时,经过六年的流动性流入后,许多发展中国家的资产价格和债务水平仍处于较高水平。“Even without the commodity downturn, monetary tightening by the US is a dangerous time for emerging markets,” said Michael Power, strategist at Investec, an investment fund.“即使没有大宗商品的低迷,美国收紧货币政策对新兴市场而言也是一个危险的时刻,”投资基金Investec的分析师迈克尔#8226;鲍尔(Michael Power)表示。“令人想起巴菲特的妙语——只有退潮的时候,才能知道谁在裸泳。”The broad-based decline in commodity prices, a drag on growth for commodity exporters such as Brazil, Russia and Chile, has been driven in part by markets expecting the end of QE.大宗商品的价格普遍下降,在一定程度上是因为市场预期量化宽松政策将要告终。价格下降拖累了大宗商品出口国,如巴西、俄罗斯和智利的经济增长。The unwinding of the US monetary stimulus has underpinned an appreciation by the US dollar, in which most commodities are priced. A rising greenback makes dollar-denominated commodities more expensive to buyers, creating pressure for sellers to lower prices.美国解除货币刺激的做法推高了美元汇率,而多数大宗商品是以美元计价的。美元升值使得以美元计价的大宗商品对买家更加昂贵,进而给卖家带来降价的压力。Nomura predicts that a basket of 19 food, energy and metal commodity prices may fall 10 per cent in the fourth quarter of this year, after declining by 12 per cent between June and the end of October. Particularly striking has been the slump in the price of oil, with Brent crude down 17 per cent to a barrel.野村券(Nomura)预计,今年第四季度一篮子19种粮食、能源和金属大宗商品价格可能下降10%,而此前从6月至10月底已经下降了12%。特别引人注目的是油价低迷,布伦特(Brent)原油自8月底以来下跌了17%,至每桶86美元。Rob Subbaraman, chief economist at Nomura, points to changes flowing from the sliding prices of commodities. But, overall, the effect over time is likely to be damaging, potentially triggering political instability.野村券首席亚洲经济学家苏文(Rob Subbaraman)指出了大宗商品价格下滑带来的一些变化。但总体而言,随着时间的推移,影响很可能是不利的,潜在可能引发政治不稳定。“Over the last 10-year commodity boom, many emerging market countries saw strong economic growth leading to the formation of what many now call the ‘new middle class’,” he said.“在过去10年的大宗商品繁荣期间,很多新兴市场国家出现强劲经济增长,催生了很多人所称的‘新中产阶级’,”他说。“A sustained drop in commodity prices could#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;mean a permanent fall in potential growth if no reforms are undertaken. This could cause political instability that could feedback negatively on economic policy.”“如果不推行改革,大宗商品价格持续下降可能……意味着潜在增长率的永久下降。这可能引起政治不稳定,进而可能对经济政策产生不利影响。”Falling commodity prices are aly leading to lower forecasts for emerging market growth. The International Institute of Finance, an association of global institutions, sees national income in emerging Europe contracting 2.9 per cent in the fourth quarter, after a 0.1 per cent fall in the third quarter, driven mostly by a slump in Russia. In the emerging economies of the Asia-Pacific, the IIF sees growth slowing to 6.8 per cent in the fourth quarter, down from 7 per cent in the third. Only in Latin America does it see a rise, to 2 per cent from 1.2 per cent in the third quarter.大宗商品价格不断下跌,已经导致各方下调新兴市场的经济增长预测。国际金融协会(Institute of International Finance,简称IIF)预测,欧洲新兴经济体的国民收入在第三季度萎缩0.1%之后,在第四季度将进一步萎缩2.9%,主要拖累因素是俄罗斯经济陷入低迷。对于亚太地区的新兴经济体,国际金融协会预测第四季度的增长将放缓至6.8%,低于第三季度7%的增幅。根据国际金融协会的预测,只有拉丁美洲的增长会加速,从第三季度的增长1.2%加快至第四季度的增长2%。In the minds of many analysts, the future depends on what the Fed does next. If it moves swiftly to a more hawkish monetary policy, leading ultimately to a rise in US interest rates, the result for emerging markets could be stark.在很多分析师的眼里,未来取决于美联储如何走下一步。如果它快速转向更为鹰派的货币政策,最终上调美元利率,其结果对新兴市场可能是严峻的。“If the Fed raises rates, it could be pretty negative for emerging markets,” said Mr Subbaraman. “A high interest rate environment is something that we have not seen for a long time.”“如果美联储提高利率,那对新兴市场可能是相当不利的,”野村券的苏文说。“大家已经有很久没有经历高利率环境了。”Particularly vulnerable, said Craig Botham, economist at Schroders, would be debt markets that have become engorged with QE-inflated cash and which have done much to finance government deficits, infrastructure projects and company expansion plans.施罗德(Schroders)经济学家克雷格#8226;瑟姆(Craig Botham)表示,近年充斥由QE带来的资金,并且为资助政府赤字、基础设施项目和企业扩张计划出了大力的债务市场尤其脆弱。Foreign ownership in local emerging market bonds has risen from 8 per cent in 2007 to 17 per cent in 2012, according to the Bank for International Settlements. Over the same period, the total size of domestic securities markets in emerging markets increased by a third to over tn.根据国际清算(Bank for International Settlements)的数据,外资所持的新兴市场本地债券比例已从2007年的8%升至2012年的17%。同期,新兴市场国内券市场的总规模增加三分之一,至16万亿美元以上。Nevertheless, even with all the negative signals, there are silver linings. Falling commodity prices are leading to ebbing inflationary pressures in much of the emerging world, giving central banks latitude to keep monetary policy loose . And while the Fed has drawn its asset purchases to an end, the Bank of Japan is still busy buying government bonds. The European Central Bank may follow suit if growth in the eurozone continues to disappoint. The era of abundant liquidity is by no means over.不过,即便有种种负面信号,令人抱有希望的迹象也是有的。不断下跌的大宗商品价格导致许多新兴国家通胀压力消退,使央行拥有保持宽松货币政策的回旋余地。同时,尽管美联储已经终止资产购买计划,但日本央行(Bank of Japan)仍忙于购买政府债券。如果欧元区经济增长继续令人失望,欧洲央行(ECB)也可能效仿。流动性充裕的时代远远没有结束。 /201410/339196。

In the wake of an unofficial Hong Kong referendum demanding political reform, activists in nearby Macau are planning their own civil referendum to gauge citizen demand for democracy.在香港举行要求政治改革的非正式投票之后不久,的政治活动人士正计划举行全民公投以衡量市民的民主诉求。The former Portuguese colony, a short ferry ride from Hong Kong, is governed by China and like Hong Kong is a special administrative region with its own political and economic systems. Since Macau returned to Chinese rule in 1999, like Hong Kong, it has been led by a Chief Executive selected by an election committee dominated by corporations and pro-Beijing interests. Currently, only 400 Macanese citizens are given a say in electing the top leader of the 30-square kilometer peninsula and archipelago. Fernando Chui, the current Chief Executive, is currently running unopposed in an election next month.曾为葡萄牙殖民地,与香港仅一水之隔。现在由中国统治,与香港一样是拥有独立政治、经济体制的特别行政区。于1999年回归中国,之后也像香港一样由行政长官领导,行政长官由一个企业界及亲北京人士主导的选举委员会选举产生。目前这个面积30多平方公里、由半岛和群岛组成的特别行政区内只有400名公民可参与行政长官选举投票。现任行政长官崔世安(Fernando Chui)在下个月的选举中暂无对手。Macau#39;s unofficial referendum, planned for August 24-30, echoes the public vote organized last month in Hong Kong by pro-democracy activists Occupy Central. According to Macau Conscience, the activist group sponsoring the vote in Macau, their plan did not take off until a local rally for democracy experienced higher-than-expected turnout in May.上个月持民主的维权组织“占领中环”(Occupy Central)在香港组织了公投后,的非官方公投计划于8月24日至30日举行。据举办投票的维权组织“良心”(Macau Conscience)称,5月份当地的一次民主集会参与人数超过预期,之后他们才萌生了公投的想法。#39;It was a surprise to me to see 20,000 Macau residents at our rally,#39; Macau Conscience member Jason Chao told China Real Time. #39;Not many citizens really understand how the Chief Executive has been elected, and we want to give them an experience to exercise their civil rights and fight for a democratic election system.#39;“良心”成员Jason Chao对“中国实时报”(China Real Time)栏目表示,看到两万居民参加他们的集会让他感到很意外。他说:“很多市民并不真正了解行政长官是如何选举出来的,我们希望使他们有一次行使公民权利、为民主选举制度而战的经历。”It#39;s not the first time that Macanese democracy activists have sponsored a public vote. In April 2012, a similar effort drew limited participants, with only 2,600 Macau residents taking part. This year, organizers hope to replicate Occupy Central#39;s unexpected success.这并非民主活动人士首次举行公众投票。2012年4月,一次类似的活动吸引了有限的参与者,只有2,600名居民参加。今年,组织者希望能够复制“占领中环”的意外成功。Macau Conscience#39;s referendum will have two questions: whether residents support universal suffrage for Macau in 2019, and whether they have confidence in the current Chief Executive, Mr. Chui. If a challenger for the city#39;s top office emerges in time for the vote by the city#39;s election committee, which begins on August 24, it will ask respondents which candidate they prefer.“良心”的投票将包括两个问题:居民是否持2019年普选,以及对现任特区行政长官崔世安是否有信心。如果在8月24日选举委员会开始投票前出现特首竞争人选,它将询问受访者更青睐哪位候选人。The prospects for a democratic Macau, however, are tempered by legal and economic realities. One critical difference between the democratic demonstrations in Hong Kong and Macau lies in their constitutions: while the goal of one day establishing universal suffrage is enshrined in the Hong Kong#39;s Basic Law, Macau#39;s Basic Law does not include the words #39;universal suffrage#39; at all.不过,法律和经济现实抑制了的民主化前景。香港和民主示威活动的一个重要区别在于它们的制度不同:最终实现普选的目标就写在香港基本法中,而的基本法中根本没有提到普选一词。Macau, the #39;Monte Carlo of the Orient,#39; is also heavily dependent on tourism from mainland China. Gambling tourism makes up about 50% of the city#39;s economy and Macau remains the only place in China where Chinese citizens are legally allowed to gamble.有“东方蒙特卡洛”之称,仍然严重依赖中国大陆游客发展旅游业。旅游占该地区经济活动的50%左右,仍然是中国唯一一个合法的地区。 /201407/310802。

Most millennials hate the thought of leaving a voicemail, especially when it#39;s to a love interest. Now, scientists say they have good reason.大多数千禧一代不喜欢语音留言,尤其不喜欢给喜欢的人发语音。现在,科学家说这的确有些道理。A new study has found Facebook messages and emails are more likely to get you a date than a simple phone call. This contradicts previous research that claims email and text messages can lack emotion.一项新的研究表明,与一个普通电话相比,在Facebook发信息或发邮件更可能给你带来一场约会。这种观点与之前一项研究结果相悖,该研究认为邮件和短信缺少人情味。#39;The bottom line is that email is much better when you want to convey some information that you want someone to think about,#39; said one of the authors, Alan Dennis from Indiana University. Dennis and co-author Taylor Wells, an assistant professor at California State University-Sacramento, wanted to learn more about how we respond emotionally to emails.印第安纳大学的艾伦·丹尼斯是该研究的一位作者。他说,“最重要的是,当你想表达一些希望引起别人思考的信息时,发邮件会更适合。”另一位作者是来自加州州立大学-萨克拉门托分校的助理教授泰勒·韦尔斯,他和丹尼斯想深入了解人们对于邮件情绪上的反应。In a study of 72 teenagers, scientists found that people who sent romantic emails were more emotionally aroused and used stronger and more thoughtful language than those who left voicemails.在一项针对72个青少年的研究中,科学家发现,与语音留言的人相比,发送浪漫邮件的人会投入更多感情,使用更加强烈、意味深长的语言。The research was conducted by placing skin sensors on the subjects#39; faces to measure muscle movement associated with positive and negative emotion, and on their feet to measure arousal. Subjects were randomly chosen to do voicemail or email and to either produce a practical or a romantic message.研究通过在研究对象的脸上放置皮肤传感器检测其对于积极、消极情感的肌肉反应,在脚上放置皮肤传感器测量其兴奋度。该研究随机挑选研究对象,让他们发送实用或是浪漫的语音信息或邮件。#39;When writing romantic emails, senders consciously or subconsciously added more positive content to their messages, perhaps to compensate for the medium#39;s inability to convey vocal tone,#39; Dennis and Wells wrote in the paper. #39;Email enables senders to modify the content as messages are composed to ensure they are crafted to the needs of the situation. Voicemail lacks this feature,#39; they added. #39;A sender records a voicemail in a single take, and it can be sent or discarded and re-recorded, but not edited. [This means] senders engage with email messages longer and may think about the task more deeply than when leaving voicemails. This extra processing may increase arousal.#39;两位作者在研究报告中写道,“写浪漫邮件时,发件人有意识或下意识地在信息里添加积极的内容,或许是弥补无法传递声音的不足。”他们补充道,“发邮件时可以修改内容,保内容符合情境。而语音信息做不到这一点,发语音时,一次只能一口气说完,语音内容只能发送、舍弃或是重录,无法修改。这也意味着发邮件时投入的精力更多,相较于发语音,他们会思考得深入,这种额外的加工处理或许增加情感。”The use of email induced more arousing psychophysiological responses than voicemail, regardless of whether the message was practical or romantic. The study found the results held true for both men and women.无论是实用信息还是浪漫信息,发邮件都比发语音信息更能引起生理和心理上的反应。研究结果对男女同样适用。The findings run counter to something known as #39;media naturalness theory#39;, a commonly held evolutionary standard suggesting that the further we get away from face-to-face communications, the less natural and less effective it becomes.这些发现与所谓的“媒介自然性理论”相悖。“媒介自然性理论”是一种通常认可的发展标准,该标准认为与人交流时隔得距离越远,交流越不自然且越低效。The researchers, however, did not see much use of emoticons and emojis in their emails. Rather, they found that when writing emails, subjects took more time to choose their words carefully to make sure the language conveyed the full meaning.但是,研究者发现邮件中并没有使用太多情感符号与表情文字。他们发现实验对象会花更多时间斟酌用词,确保言尽其意。Dennis warns people against misinterpreting these findings to suggest that face-to-face meetings, personal phone calls and other direct forms of communications aren#39;t as useful.丹尼斯告诫人们不要理解错误研究发现,并不是说面对面的交流,打电话等直接沟通方式没有用。#39;If something isn#39;t really clear and you want to make sure that everyone has the same understanding of what something means, that#39;s best done in phone calls, face-to-face meetings or conferencing,#39; Dennis said.丹尼斯说,“如果有些事不清楚,而你希望确保大家都理解你想表达的意思,最好还是打电话、面对面交流,或是视频通话。”The study has been accepted for publication in the journal Computers in Human Behavior.这项研究已经获准在期刊《计算机与人类行为》发表。 /201509/399656。

Exposure to air pollution may hasten brain aging, a new study has found.一项新研究发现,暴露在空气污染中可能会加速大脑衰老。Researchers studied 1,403 women without dementia who were initially enrolled in a large health study from 1996 to 1998. They measured their brain volume with magnetic resonance imaging scans in 2005 and 2006, when the women were 71 to 89.这项研究的对象为1403名未患痴呆症的女性,她们曾在1996年至1998年间参与过另一项大型健康研究。在2005年和2006年,研究人员用磁共振成像扫描的方式,测量了这些年纪在71岁至89岁之间的女性的脑容量。Using residential histories and air pollution data, they estimated their exposure to air pollution from 1999 to 2006. They used data recorded at monitoring sites on exposure to PM 2.5 — tiny particulate matter that easily penetrates the lungs.研究人员利用居住记录和空气污染数据,对她们从1999年到2006年暴露在空气污染中的情况进行了估算。他们使用了监测PM 2.5的站点记录的数据。PM 2.5是一种容易进入肺中的微粒物。Each increase of 3.49 micrograms per cubic centimeter cumulative exposure to pollutants was associated with a 6.23 cubic centimeter decrease in white matter, the equivalent of one to two years of brain aging. The association remained after adjusting for many variables.每立方厘米中累积污染物每增加3.49微克,脑白质就会减少6.23立方厘米,相当于大脑衰老一到两年。根据多个变量进行了调整后,这种相关性依然存在。Previous studies have shown that air pollution can cause inflammation and damage to the vascular system, but this study, in The Annals of Neurology, showed damage to the brain itself.之前的研究表明,空气污染可能会导致血管系统发炎受损,而发表在《神经学年报》(The Annals of Neurology)上的这项研究表明,空气污染会导致大脑受损。“This tells us that the damage air pollution can impart goes beyond the circulatory system,” said the lead author, Dr. Jiu-Chiuan Chen, an associate professor of preventive medicine at the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California. “Particles in the ambient air are an environmental neurotoxin to the aging brain.”“这告诉我们,空气污染带来的危害不仅限于循环系统,”文章的第一作者、南加州大学凯克医学院(Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California)预防医学副教授陈居泉(Jiu-Chiuan Chen)士说。“对日渐衰老的大脑来说,周围空气中的颗粒物是自然环境中的神经毒素。” /201506/382770。