赣州祛斑哪家好飞度技术养生在线

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月23日 10:37:50
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Founded by Li Yuanhao, known as Emperor Jingzong, the Western Xia was a dynasty of the Dangxiang people, with its capital in the Xingqing Prefecture (now Yinchuan in Ningxia).西夏是中国历史上以党项族为主体建立的王朝,建都兴庆府(今宁夏银川),开国皇帝为夏景宗李元昊。His empire extended as far east as the Yellow River, as far west as Yumen(west of Dunhuang, Gansu), as far south as Xiaoguan (north of Huan County, Gansu) and as far north as the Gobi desert.西夏疆域,东临黄河,西至玉门关(今甘肃敦煌),南接萧关(今甘肃环县北),北抵大漠。At its height, the Xi Xia consisted of 22 prefectures covering northern Ningxia and Shaanxi, northwestern Gansu, northeastern Qinghai and part of Inner Mongolia.盛时辖地22州,包括今宁夏及陕西北部、甘肃西北部、青海东北部及内蒙古部分地区。Ruled by 10 emperors, the Xi Xia lasted 190 years and was a rival of the Liao, the Northern Song, the Jin and the Southern Song.西夏共历十帝,前后190年。与辽、北宋及金、南宋并存。By origin, Dangxiang was a branch of the Qiang nationality and they formerly lived in the vicinity of the Yellow River valley located in the southeastern area of present-day Qinghai.党项族原属于羌族的一,居住在今青海东南部黄河曲一带。Since the late Tang Dynasty to the Northern Song Dynasty, theTuoba family of this nationality, working as satraps of the Central Plains government, had been governing the Xia Prefecture (now Hengshan in Shaaxi) and four other neighbouring prefectures.从唐末,经五代到北宋,党项拓跋氏均以中原王朝节度使的身分统辖以夏州(今陕西横山)为中心的五州之地。Due to the efforts of Li Jiqian (Li Yuanhao^ grandfather) and Li Deming (Li Yuanhao^ father), this nationality pursued a strategy of allying with the Liao. They made peace with the Song, attacked the Turbans and the Uygurs, and conquered the Xiliang Prefecture (now Wuwei in Gansu), the Ganzhou Prefecture (north of present-day Zhangye in Gansu) and the Guazhou Prefecture (present-day eastern Anxi in Gansu). Thus, the Dangxiang controlled all the areas along the western bank of the Yellow River and laid a solid foundation for Li Yuanhao to establish a dynasty.经过李继迁(元昊之祖父)、李德明(元昊之父)两代人的艰苦努力,实施依辽和宋、用兵吐蕃与回鹘的战略,向西发展占领西凉府(今甘肃武威)、甘州 (今甘肃张掖北)、瓜州(今甘肃安西东)等州,控制了河西走廊,为李元昊称帝建国打下了坚实的基础。In the 9th year of Tiansheng of Song Renzong (1031) Li Deming died and his throne went to his son Li Yuanhao. The new chief then refused the title conferred by the central government, replaced the surnames of Li and Zhao awarded by the Chinese court with Wei (on his own creation) and declared himself “Wuzu”(Son of Heaven).宋仁宗天圣九年(1031),李德明死,李元昊继位,不再接受封号,废除唐、宋所赐李、赵姓氏,改姓嵬名氏,自号“兀卒”(青天子)。Li Yuanhao then carried out a series of reform, including changing the hairstyle, the dress code, creating a written language, simplifying ceremonies and setting up an administrative system. At the same time, he made Xingzhou the Xingqing Prefecture, enlarged his palace and made preparations for declaring himself emperor.随后,李元昊实行变发式、定饰、造文字、简礼仪、立官制等一系列改革,并升兴州为兴庆府,扩建宫城,准备建国称帝。He attacked the Northern Song in the 1st year of Jingyou (1034) and defeated her forces in Fuzhou (now Fugu in Shanxi), Huanzhou (now Huanxian in Gansu) and Qingzhou (now Qingyang in Gansu).宋仁宗景祐元年(1034),他开始不断向宋发动攻势,在府州(今山西府谷)、环州(今甘肃环县)、庆州(今甘肃庆阳)等地击败宋军。In the 1st year of Baoyuan (1038), Li Yuanhao formally assumed the imperial title, designating his reign Yanzuo, and his dynasty, the Great Xia, was also known as the Western Xia in history.宋仁宗宝元元年(1038 ),元昊正式称帝,改元天授礼法延祚元年,国号大夏,史称西夏。Largely influenced by the Song Dynasty, the Xi Xia basically adopted her civil service system.西夏的政治制度受宋朝影响很大,官制的设置基本上模仿北宋。Central Government consisted of a Secretariat, a Privy Council, a Military Council, a Treasury, a Prefecture of Kaifeng, and a Censor Department, a Taxation Department, an Agricultural Department, a Livestock Department, a Department of Tibetan Studies, a Department of Han Culture and several others.中央行政机 构有:中书省、枢密院、三司、御史台、开封府、翊卫司、官计司、受纳司、农田司、群牧司、飞龙院、磨勘司、文思院、蕃学、汉学等。Local governments were split into two levels, i. e. , prefectures and counties. Prefectures were also set up in strategic political centers and military places.地方行政编制分州、县两级,在特殊的政治中心和军事国防要地有时也设郡、府。The military service system was a mix of the tribal military service system of the Dangxiang and that of the Song.西夏的军事制度是在党项部落兵制的基础上吸取宋制而发展起来的。The Military Council was the highest military body, consisting of several departments.枢密院是西夏最高的军事统御机构,下设诸司。The military forces comprised the imperial army, the “capture” army and local troops.军队由中央侍卫军、擒生军和地方军三部分组成。The imperial army was divided into three groups that performed different duties.中央侍卫军包括“质子军”、皇帝卫队和京师卫戍部队。The Zhizi Army was an elite force of 5 000 men who were excellent horsemen and archers. Chosen from aristocrat families, they were actually the armed escorts of the emperor and were on duty on three shifts a day in the palace.“质子军”人数约5000人,是由豪族子弟中选拔善于骑射者组成的一卫戍部队,负责保卫皇帝安全,号称“御围内六班直”,分三番宿卫。Another group of the imperial army, amounting to 3 000 soldiers, was top cavalrymen chosen from local armies across the country and who would follow the emperor into battle.另有皇帝亲信卫队3000人,是从境内各军中精选出来的强勇之士组成,皆为重甲骑兵,分为十队,每队300人,随皇帝出人作战。But the main part of the imperial army was the garrison force stationed in the capital. This well-armed army had 25000 soldiers in total. The Mcapturearmy, amounting to 100 000 men, was the main fighting force of the Xi Xia. It was called “capture”in that the enemy troops were always caught alive and then forced to become slaves.京城地区还屯驻一训练有素的卫戍部队,共2.5万人,装备优良,是中央侍卫军的主力,擒生军人数约10万,是西夏的精锐部队,主要任务是承担攻坚和机动作战,因在战斗中生擒敌军为奴隶,故此得名。The local forces, under jurisdiction of several departments of the Military Council, consisted of roughly 500 000 cavalrymen and infantrymen.西夏的地方军由各监军司所辖, 共有50万人,军兵种主要是骑兵和步兵两种。The Xi Xia practiced a policy ofevery citizen a soldier” i. e. Soldiers engaged in agriculture during times of peace and fought in war time.西夏兵役制度是全民皆兵制,平时 不脱离生产,战时参加战斗。The Dangxiang had originally lived by livestock husbandry and hunting, but later learnt more advance agricultural techniques.党项族原来主要从事畜牧业和狩猎,通过学习汉族先进的农业生产技术,农业经济得到迅速的发展。By the time the Xi Xia was founded, farming had become the main sector in its economy.到西夏建国时,农业生产已成为西夏社会经济的主要部门。Emperor Jingzong (Li Yuanhao) placed even higher emphasis on agricultural development. He not only had large-scale irrigation works built, but also personally took charge of the building of a canal from the Qingtong Gorge to Pingluo, called MKing Hao Canar, or “King Li Canal”.西夏建国后,景宗李元昊更加重视农业生产的发展,大力兴修水利工程,并亲自主持修筑了从今青铜峡至平罗的灌渠,世称“昊王渠”或“李王渠”。Afterwards, the areas of Xingqing and Lingzhou became the main bases for grain production.以后,兴庆府、灵州一带,一直是西夏粮食生产的主要基地。Attention was also paid to animal husbandry.在发展农业的同时,西夏统治者也较重视畜牧业生产。In the central government, a special department was set up to be responsible for its development.国家专门设立群牧司负责畜牧业的管理。Livestock husbandry areas were mainly scattered north of the Heng Mountain and along the corridor on the western bank of the Yellow River. Sheep, goats, horses, camels, cattle, asses, mules and pigs were the main animals domesticated.西夏的畜牧地区主要分布在横山以北和河西走廊地带,牧养的牲畜以羊、马、蛇、牛为主,还有驴、骤、猪等。Handicrafts and commerce also flourished then. The Xi Xia had a high output in the industries of metallurgy, salt collecting and refining, brick and tile making, pottery and china making, textiles, paper making, printing, wine making, and the making of gold, silver, and wooden utensils.由于农、牧业的发展,社会生产力的迅速提高,西夏的手工业生产和商业贸易也随之迅速发展起来。西夏的冶炼、采盐制盐、砖瓦、陶瓷、纺织、造纸、印刷、酿造、金银木器制作等手工业生产也都具有一定的规模和水平。With the promotion of its rulers, the Dangxiang received more of the Han culture than any other nationality at the time.在西夏统治者的倡导下,党项族是同时期接受汉文化较多的一个民族。One can say that the core culture of the Western Xia was Confucianist.可以说,西夏文化的核心是儒家文化。Towards the end of the Xi Xia, its government was in chaos and the political opponents and different interests groups were rival for controlling of the government.西夏末期,朝政长期处于内乱之中,政敌和宗党间的斗争激烈。After the founding of the Kingdom of Mongolia, there were wars between them. With many years of fighting finally in the 2nd year of Baoyi (1227) of the last emperor,s reign,the Western Xia ended in the hands of the Mongolia.蒙古汗国建立后,几次征讨西夏,经过长期的抗争,西夏于末帝宝义二年 (1227)被蒙古所灭。 /201602/426198

In the hours and day after terror attacks left more than 120 people dead in Paris, landmarks across the world were illuminated in blue, white, and red to honor the victims.2015年11月13日,巴黎遭遇恐怖袭击,120人死亡。周五晚到周六清晨,世界各地的地标性建筑纷纷点亮了法国国旗的红白蓝三色,为巴黎祈福。New York City’s One World Trade Center 纽约世贸中心 New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo said his state stands in solidarity with the people of France.纽约州长Andrew Cuomo说他代表纽约,与法国人民站在一起。 /201511/409937

After the Western Jin was vanquished, the Han government withdrew to the east of the Yangtze River.晋王朝灭亡后,汉族政权退守江东。In 317, Sima Rui, a member of the Western Jin imperial family stationed in Jiankang (now Nanjing in Jiangsu), restablished the Jin government, which became known as the Eastern Jin.公元317年,镇守建康(今江苏南 京)的晋宗室司马睿在江南重建晋室,史称东晋。Content to retain sovereignty over just a part of the Western Jin territories, the Eastern Jin lasted 103 years and was overthrown in 420 by the Song Dynasty founded by Liu Yu. Altogether the Eastern Jin lasted four generations and had eleven emperors.东晋政权维持了长期的偏安统治,到公元420年被南朝刘裕所建立的宋所取代,共享国103年,历四代十一帝。In 316,after Liu Cong occupied Chang’an and captured the last Emperor of the Western Jin, Sima Ye, the Western Jin Dynasty ended. However,those former ministers of Western Jin were unwilling to yield and they endeavored hard to restore the Jin.公元316年,刘聪攻占长安,西晋的末代皇帝司马邺被俘,宣告了西晋的灭亡,但一些晋朝的旧臣并不甘心亡国的命运,仍在全国各地积极活动,准备恢复晋朝的统治。Sima Rui, the great grandson of Sima Yi, granted as the King of Langya from his father, was in charge of the defense in south of Yangzhou( now Jiangsu province) and moved his headquarters from Xiapi to Jianye( later called Jiankang, now Nanjing City).晋元帝司马睿,司马懿曾孙,袭父封为琅蚜王,都督扬州江南诸军事,由下邳移镇建邺(后又改名建康,今江苏省南京市)。After the downfall of the Western Jin, he was elected by his supporters and followers as new emperor in March,317 with Jiankang as capital.西晋灭亡后,部下于公元317年3月拥奉他为晋王,改年号为“建武”,定都建康。His regime was named Jianwu and his ruling periods were called the Eastern Jin in history given the facts that the remaining Sima families restricted their power in the eastern parts of the Yangtze River.因其继西晋之后偏安于江南,故史家称之为东晋。In the Eastern Jin period, the development of powerful family reached its peak as royal power was on the wane.东晋是门阀政治发展的鼎盛时期,皇权衰落。Without the support of the southern bureaucrats and gentry-officials, Sima Rui could not have become emperor. The early years of the Eastern Jin saw a stable period after the suppression of Wang Dun and Su Jun.司马睿称帝有赖于南方官僚士族的拥戴,东晋政权建立之初,先后平息了王敦和苏峻之乱,统治趋于稳定。Four powerful families—the Wang, the Xie, the Yu and the Huan—successively dominated the politics of the Eastern Jin court.四大门阀大族王、谢、庾、桓先后配着东晋王朝政局。 /201512/415739

  Women are getting close to drinking the same amount of alcohol as men in the ed States, according to a new study.最新的一项研究表明,美国女性的饮酒量直追男性。Writing in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, researchers from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National Institutes of Health, say women appear to be closing the gap on men.研究人员在《酗酒:临床与实验研究》杂志中写到,国立酗酒与酒精中毒研究所的研究人员说,女性饮酒量与男性正趋于相同。;We found that over that period of time, differences in measures such as current drinking, number of drinking days per month, reaching criteria for an alcohol use disorder, and driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year, all narrowed for females and males,; said Aaron White, the NIAAA#39;s senior scientific adviser. ;Males still consume more alcohol, but the differences between men and women are diminishing.;国立酗酒与酒精中毒研究所高级科学顾问亚伦·怀特说,“我们发现,在过去一年中的饮酒量、每月饮酒天数、饮酒过量、酒后驾车等各种测量的数据,女性与男性的差异缩小了。男性消耗的酒精仍然多于女性,但是女性和男性之间的差异正在缩小。”For the study, White looked at data from yearly national surveys conducted between 2002 and 2012.为了这项研究,研究人员比较了2002年和2012年之间的全国年度调查数据。He found that the percentage of people who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days had increased for women from 44.9 percent to 48.3 percent.他发现,在前30天内,女性当中的饮酒者比例从44.9上升到了48.3%。Meanwhile, the figures for men declined from 57.4 percent to 56.1 percent. The number of ;drinking days; for women was up from 6.8 per month to 7.3 per month. The number for men declined from 9.9 days to 9.5 days, according to the study.同时,男性的数据从57.4%下降到了56.1%。研究表明,女性的每月饮酒天数从6.8天增加到了7.3天。而男性从9.9天下降到了9.5天。NIAAA Director George F. Koob said the findings are concerning, adding that women are at greater risk than men of a variety of alcohol-related health effects, including liver inflammation, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and cancer.国立酗酒与酒精中毒研究所主任乔治·科布说,这一研究结果令人担心。他还说,女性面临的与酒精相关的各种健康风险超过男性,其中包括肝炎、心血管疾病、神经毒性和癌症。The study showed a significant increase in binge drinking by 18- to 25-year-old women not in college, but a significant decrease among males. For those in college, there was no increase in binge drinking for men or women.研究显示,发生在18-25岁且不读大学的女性中的酗酒量显著增加,而男性则显著减少。在读大学的男性和女性当中,酗酒量没有增加。Researchers said they still can#39;t identify the reasons women are narrowing the gap, but that ;employment, pregnancy, or marital status; do not seem to be factors.研究人员说,他们还不能确定为什么女性缩小了与男性的差距,但是“就业、怀和婚姻状况”似乎不是原因。 /201511/412594

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  A cool new service in Japan is meant to help busy career women cope with the stress of their hectic lifestyles. For about 7,900 yen, they can hire #39;Ikemeso#39; – cute men – to wipe away their tears, quite literally!当下,日本新兴一种酷炫务,能够帮助职业女性排解忙碌生活带来的种种压力。花上7900日元(约合420元人民币),日本妇女就能雇一名“擦泪帅哥”(日语叫Ikemeso)帮忙擦眼泪!Here#39;s how it works: You call the company and pick one of seven Ikemeso, who will then arrive at your workplace to help you release stress through crying. If you#39;re in tears aly, the licensed “crying therapist” will simply wipe your tears away with the softest handkerchief and comfort you with kind words. If work-related stress hasn#39;t pushed you to tears yet, the Ikemeso will play an emotional film meant to induce crying. After the is over, he#39;ll wipe your tears away.究竟是怎么回事呢?原来,顾客通过拨打电话,能从7位“擦泪帅哥”中挑选一名。随后,这位帅哥就会到达你的工作地点,助你痛哭减压。如果你已经哭成了泪人,“痛哭治疗师”会一边用最柔软的手绢擦去你眼角的泪水,一边温柔地安慰。如果你还未被工作压垮,失声痛哭的话,他就会放一部催泪的情感电影,并在观影后,为你擦干泪水。There are different types of guys you can choose from, depending on your taste – the little brother, the intellectual, the bad boy, the slightly older hot guy, and more. The service is all set to launch on September 24.顾客还能根据口味,选择偏爱的帅哥,其中就包括了邻家小哥、知识分子、坏小子、性感大叔等。这项务于9月24日正式推出。According to Hiroki Terai, the creator of Ikemeso, “Japanese women are under tremendous stress at the office here in Tokyo, which often ends in tears. We are here to provide a kind word and brush the tears away by one of our seven lovely men on call.”务的发起人寺井广树(Hiroki Terai)说:“在东京,职场女性承受的压力实在太大了,常常让她们失声痛哭。我们这7个帅哥随叫随到,希望其中一个能安慰她们,帮她们拭去泪水。”Some will undoubtedly find the whole idea sexist, but Terai claims that the company has been receiving queries non-stop ever since they launched the website last week. He also insists that the service is not a hoax. “More and more women are trying to hold down professional jobs these days but the male dominated, workaholic workforce makes it hard for them,” he said. “We want such put-upon women to have a good cry and feel better when they feel targeted.”毫无疑问,不少人会觉得这想法充满了性别歧视,但寺井广树称,自公司网站上线一周来,他们接到了顾客源源不断的咨询电话。他坚称,这项务并非恶作剧。“如今,越来越多的女性都尽力保住自己的工作,但男性工作狂依旧称霸职场。”他说,“我们希望压力过大的女性能好好哭上一场,遭受不公平待遇时不至于灰心丧气。”“Who doesn#39;t feel better after a big boo-hoo?”“毕竟,大哭一场后,谁不会感到如释重负呢?”The term Ikemeso is a word play that combines ikemen (hot guy) and mesomeso (crying). Oh, and speaking of ikemen, remember Shabani the handsome gorilla that used to drive Japanese women nuts?Ikemeso这个词由ikemen(帅哥)和mesomeso(大哭)结合而来。说到帅哥,不知你还记不记得名古屋动物园那只迷倒日本妇女的大猩猩?For now, Ikemeso seem to only cater to stressed employees, but judging by the positive feedback the service has gotten even prior to its official launch, it#39;s fair to assume it will soon be more widely available.目前,这项务仅面向备受压力的职业女性。不过,鉴于其尚未正式推出便大获人气,今后或许会面向各个群体。It#39;s a bizarre service, to be sure, but not by Japanese standards. After all, we#39;re talking about the country that came up with strange ideas like a slow taxi service, a dress-rental business for men who want to feel like princesses or a rent-a-friend service, among many others.实话说,“帅哥擦泪”听起来颇为疯狂,但放在日本,大概算稀松平常。毕竟,发生在日本的奇事太多了,比如慢车务、男人租公主裙务、租友务等等。 /201509/400967Jack Solomon, a 74-year-old industrial chemist from Westchester, New York, had been waiting for the internet home-sharing revolution for years. Looking for a home to retire to in 2005, he and his wife ended up with a house in East Hampton and — as you do — a neighbouring island that sleeps 36.来自美国纽约州威斯彻斯特县(Westchester, New York)的74岁工业化学家杰克所罗门(Jack Solomon)多年来一直在苦等互联网私宅共享革命浪潮的到来。2005年他与妻子四处找寻退休后的住所,最终在东汉普顿(East Hampton)“安营扎寨”,这座邻近东汉普顿的小岛上共住有36人。He toiled unsuccessfully on craigslist, the local classifieds service, trying to eke out some income from the island when not in use for stays with family and friends. When it came, the new wave of home sharing websites was a godsend; today he has a steady stream of bookings for the island courtesy of Airbnb, TripAdvisor and VRBO (a popular US rental site).他曾在当地分类广告网站Craigslist上打广告,希望房子空置时(自己家人与朋友不在此居住时)能对外出租,但却以失败告终。当这一天终于成为现实时,不断涌现的私宅分享网站如同及时雨。如今拜Airbnb 、TripAdvisor以及美国知名租赁网站VRBO所赐,预订他小岛住所的人络绎不绝。Airbnb reports a boom in short-term home lets by the super-rich. In June, the number of one-bed listings charging more than 1,000 per night was nearly three times what it had been a year before. Asia is leading the charge: high-end apartments — those with pools and gyms — grew quickest in Tokyo (up 78 per cent) and Hong Kong (up 70 per cent). Over the same 12-month period, London listings grew by half and those in Paris a third.Airbnb报告称:富豪临时出租私宅者大幅飚升。今年6月,上网招租的单张床位数(每晚租金超过1000英镑)同比增长了近3倍。亚洲租金首屈一指独领风骚:带泳池与健身房的高档住宅的租金在东京与香港同比增幅最大,分别达78%与70%。过去一年,伦敦待租房屋的租金同比增长了50%,巴黎则同比增长了三分之一。Premium home rental sites are booming. Luxury Retreats, which claims to turn away 95 per cent of those who offer their (mainly) holiday homes, now has 2,800 properties, largely in the US and the Caribbean, with nightly rates ranging from ,000 to 4,000, for the plushest private island. Onefinestay has been listing plush pads since 2010 in sought-after city locations and now has 2,000 homes across London, New York, Paris and LA, with a combined value of 6bn. Villas.com, the vacation rental site operated by booking.com, which includes plenty of plush pads, boasts 308,000 vacation homes.高档住宅租赁网站也快速涌现。Luxury Retreats声称把95%有意出租者的度假屋者拒之门外,如今旗下拥有2800套房源(多数位于美国与加勒比海的最为奢华的私人海岛),每晚租金从1000美元至12.4万美元不等。2010年以来,Onefinestay一直招租城市黄金地段的豪华住所,如今在伦敦、纽约、巴黎以及洛杉矶等地拥有的房源多达2000套,总价值超过60亿英镑。由booking.com负责经营的休假房屋租赁网站Villas.com名下把大量豪宅出租,自诩名下度假房多达30.8万套。Second-home owners are getting younger, meaning more look to the internet for smart rental solutions when they are not using their homes themselves. The average age of second-home buyers in the US dropped from 52 to 43 in the 10 years to 2013, according to the US National Association of Realtors.二手房主越趋年轻化,他们更希望房屋空置时能通过租赁网出租。据全美房地产经纪人协会(US National Association of Realtors)统计:过去10年(截止2013年),美国二手房主的平均年龄从52岁降到了43岁。Increasingly, people are renting their main homes, too. “Where the super-rich have listed secondary residences for some time, now they’re starting to offer their main homes while staying in other properties or holidaying,” says Olivier Gremillon, who runs Airbnb’s European business.不仅如此,出租主宅者也越来越多。“富豪过去上网出租自己的次要住宅,如今当自己住到别处或是外出休假时,则开始把主宅临时出租。”Airbnb欧洲区负责人奥利维耶格雷米翁(Olivier Gremillon)说。Online home rental sites typically feature interactive calendars allowing owners to switch availability on or off at a moment’s notice, dodging the advance commitment typically required by property rental firms. As importantly, messaging apps and sophisticated review systems provide homeowners with the information they need to vet potential guests.家租网通常以交互式日历招揽客户:允许房主可即刻告知房屋能否出租,从而规避了房屋租赁公司通常要求的提前预约规定。同样重要的是:短信通知程序与先进的复查系统可给房主提供相关信息,用以审核有意承租者。Two years ago, Francesca Diana, an Italian jewellery designer who runs her global business from Rio, bought a private island on a rural nature reserve about an hour and half’s drive from her home. It has become a precious retreat: “I’d never rent it to someone unknown or give up the control over who could stay there,” she says.2年前,在巴西里约经营全球业务的意大利首饰设计师弗朗西斯卡戴安娜(Francesca Diana)购买了一座私人小岛,它位于当地自然保护区内,距离自家约1.5小时车程。“我永远也不会把它转租给陌生人、或是把它交给想长住的人。”她说。Through Airbnb, she corresponds with prospective guests to discover their interests and expectations, then s reviews from previous hosts to check their form. “I need to know they will respect the national park and aren’t here to use the island to party on,” she says. This choosiness, and the fact that she will only take guests for a week or more, cuts down her rental periods. But like many of today’s premium home-sharers, her motivation is social as well as financial.借助Airbnb,她与有意承租者取得联系,了解对方的兴趣爱好及期望值,再通过浏览以往招租房主的评价掌握其实际为人。“我得弄清楚对方是否尊重国家公园的相关规定,租住小岛是不是用于操办聚会。”她说。她的挑剔、再加上其容许的出租期只有一周左右,从而减少了她的总租赁时间。但与当今诸多豪宅共享者一样,她的动机是社会与经济目的兼而有之。Laurent also likes the company. A scion of a large French family — he won’t give his surname — he lets his sumptuous 4,300 sq ft Louis XVI-period spare apartment in Paris. Extra income for maintenance is handy, he says, but his guests, and their generous reviews, are what he gets excited about. He’ll give tours of the house, explaining which family castle features in this painting, which French king once sat in that armchair and when that celebrity came to stay. For between 650 and 1,000 per night, depending on the season, he’ll throw in a few of his own staff of “cleaners, driver, guardian and cooks”.不愿透露自己姓氏的法国某望族传人洛朗(Laurent)也喜欢与人为伴,他对外招租的是自家位于巴黎、始建于路易十六时期(Louis XVI)、面积达4300平方英尺的空置豪宅。这些贴补维修费的额外收入唾手可得,他说,入住客户以及对方的溢美之词同样让他很是受用。他通常会带客人走马观花一番,向对方讲述家族藏画中画的是哪座家族城堡、自家扶椅坐过哪位法王陛下、以及哪位名流曾下榻此处。每晚租金介于650-1000英镑之间,具体数额视季节而定,他还会免费安排自己的“清洁工、司机、保安以及厨师”来此务。Visitors during Paris Fashion Week can hobnob with models and celebs at one of his exclusive parties. Younger members of the home-sharing revolution pick their guests with more specific aims in mind. Ben James, who is 26 and “predominantly single”, rents out one or both rooms in his Mayfair penthouse, which includes a huge roof terrace. He’d probably pass on a request from a family with young children, he says, “but two young ladies over in London for a party fit more with my lifestyle”. Family in the area means that he can move out briefly if a long booking doesn’t quite sync with his own travel plans; at 700 per night, a three-week stay is, he points out, “a decent chunk of change”.巴黎时装周期间,游客可在洛朗组织的高档聚会上与参会的名模、名流进行亲密互动。私宅共享浪潮中的年轻一代挑选租客时目的性更为具体。26岁的本礠姆斯(Ben James)崇尚独身,他把自己伦敦梅费尔区(Mayfair)顶层公寓(带有面积很大的露台)的一两个房间对外招租。他通常愿意租给带有小孩的家庭租住,他说,“但是,两位住在伦敦的年轻姑娘若是合伙租住,则更符合我的生活方式”。他自己的家庭就在附近,如果长期出租与自己的出游计划相冲突,他可以短时搬出去住;他说:每晚700英镑的租金,若是租上三周,自己就有了“一大笔零花钱”。James was probably never shy, but others have taken a while to get comfy with the concept of house sharing.詹姆斯也许无所顾忌,但有些人真正接受私宅共享理念则需假以时日。Prime Airbnb listings surged last year when the firm hiked its insurance policy from 50,000 — about enough to cover a vase in some London homes — to 1m. Owners can add their own deposit requirements and checking procedures. In 10 years Laurent has lost only a Bose sound system and a few bottles of champagne from the cellar.去年,当Airbnb把保险赔偿费从5万英镑(刚够赔偿伦敦某些豪宅中的一只花瓶)猛增至100万英镑后,到Airbnb网招租的豪宅数大幅飚升。户主还可以要求添加定金要求以及增加核对程序。10年来,洛朗只丢过一套Bose音响系统以及几瓶窑藏香槟。Many rich users once avoided posting photos on their Airbnb profiles for fear of friends thinking they were hard up, says Gremillon. All that has changed: “now it’s cool to be part of the sharing economy; it’s something for people to talk about over dinner parties.” Some have been led by tech savvy kids, who grew up holidaying on strangers’ sofas via couchsurfing.com, and now rent or sublet their homes on even the shortest trips. Others have been lured by sites that take the hassle out of the rental process in exchange for keeping a share — typically up to half — of what guests are charged. At Onefinestay and LuxuryRetreats, after a rental price is agreed all the owner must do is decide whether to accept or reject subsequent bookings. Onefinestay ships in linen, towels and toiletries, and uses aircraft-style tamper tape seals to signal to guests which rooms or draws are off limits.很多有钱的房主曾竭力避免把豪宅照片上传至Airbnb网页,因为担心亲朋好友会误以为自己手头拮据,格雷米翁说。但此一时、彼一时也:“如今成为共享经济的一分子很潮很酷;它俨然成了各种饭局的谈资。”如今的技术男成了引领潮流者,他们从小到大随家人度假时,每次都睡在陌生人家(通过couchsurfing.com网承租)的沙发床。如今他们即便短途出游,往往把自家房子出租或转租于他人。其他人则被许诺简化招租程序的网站吸引,对方开出的条件是租金分成(通常达一半)。在Onefinestay及LuxuryRetreats,租金谈妥后,房主只需决定是否接受随后的房屋招租。Onefinestay备好床单、毛巾以及化妆品、并使用飞机上的密件启封方式向客人标示哪些房间与区域禁止进入。A few users with posh pads may not be super-rich. Lower-income European aristocrats are increasingly employing Airbnb to rent outbuildings on their estates, helping to fix leaking roofs, says Gremillon.有些豪宅户主可能并非富豪。越来越多的低收入欧洲旧贵族借助Airbnb网把自家豪宅的附属房屋对外出租,以赚取屋顶渗漏维修费用,格雷米翁说。Others are cash-strapped enthusiasts. Alain Etienne Marcel did a deal with the French town of St Malo, where he lives, to restore a 17th-century fort off the coast in return for a 99-year lease on the property. When he had returned some of the rooms to their original condition, he started to take bookings through Airbnb for up to ㄠ,600 per night. The revenue funds the rest of the work and helps pay for public visits to the fort, his original motivation for the project.其它热衷对外招租的豪宅则是因为资金短缺。阿兰縠节覄氠庚尔(Alain Etienne Marcel)与法国小镇圣马洛(St Malo,他如今居住于此)签订协议,他帮助修复一座17世纪的海滨要塞,条件是自己获得要塞99年的租用期。他把某些房间原样修复后,就开始通过Airbnb网接受客户预订,每晚租金高达1600欧元。收入用于未竟的修复工程以及贴补公众参观的费用(这是他最初的动因)。The new home-sharing economy also offers a radical solution to the fraught uncertainties of relocation.全新的共享经济还给充满变数的异地安家提供了根本出路。When tech entrepreneurs Leila Zegna and her husband were planning a move from San Francisco to London last autumn, they compiled a shortlist of six central London neighbourhoods. Rather than gamble with a year-long lease in an area they might not like, they used Onefinestay to find three-week home rentals in each of the six areas. The company provided a list of suitable homes and arranged each stay; the couple arrived to a welcome from an agent and a mobile phone preloaded with the owner’s local tips, from restaurants to dry cleaners. Zegna estimates that the rental cost was just 15 per cent more than that of a long-term let. “It was a great adventure: we were incredibly mobile, living out of a suitcase and exploring each neighbourhood every night after work and at weekends,” she says, adding that global firms should follow her lead to make foreign postings more appealing.去年秋天,当科技创业者莱拉瀠尼亚(Leila Zegna)伉俪计划从旧金山搬至伦敦时,他们最终圈定了伦敦市中心的6处住宅区。他们没有选择在一个小区长租一年(他俩不太喜欢),转而通过Onefinestay网在每个小区各租住三周时间。网络租赁公司提供了几家候选家庭,并妥善安排好了一切入住事宜;夫妻俩每到一处,就有中介公司迎接他们,手机中预装了房主提供的本地务信息(从餐馆到干洗店)。杰尼亚估计租金只比长期租住多出15%。“这是妙不可言的经历:我们来去自如,只需拿个手提箱,每晚下班后以及周末,我们就会在每个小区寻芳探幽一番。”她说,并补充说跨国公司应该积极效仿其做法,如此一来员工驻外肯定争先恐后。Growth in demand for prime home rentals has been driven by the changing tastes of super-rich holidaymakers. Since the financial crisis, a shift from ostentatious consumption to sustainable localism — eccentric cafés and hidden farmers’ markets — has seen affluent travellers swap design hotels for homestays, says Mindy Ewing of Virtuoso, a premium travel agent that sources many of their properties through high-end sharing sites.高端住宅租赁需求增长的动因是外出度假的富豪品味发生了变化。自金融危机以来,从炫富性消费到对风土习俗(怪异的咖啡屋与出世农民的集市)持久偏爱的转变,让不差钱的游客弃住豪华酒店、转而选择农家旅舍,来自高端旅行社Virtuoso的明迪尤因(Mindy Ewing)说,Virtuoso通过豪宅分享网站淘选了许多适合招租的房屋。Frequent business travellers are also a growing market. When 49-year-old Paul Watts was working in San Francisco for a British software firm, he chose home rentals for the half dozen annual trips he made back to London, often with his wife. Now living in London again, they use the site for trips to the Paris office. “It enables us to feel like we have a work-home balance when I’m working abroad; it has been a life-changer,” he says.经常出差者的市场需求也是水涨船高。49岁的保罗瓦茨(Paul Watts)曾在旧金山为一家英国软件公司上班,每年回英国几次,都是与妻子租房住。如今返回伦敦居住后,他俩到巴黎分公司出差时,常常通过租房网站租房住。“我在国外出差时,租房住可以让我们感觉工作与居家两不误;它一直是改变生活的大功臣。”他这样说道。The same appetite for local immersion has driven growth in internet-enabled home swaps. These include HomeExchange.com, or the smaller, plusher, 3rdhome.com, which is a sort of a car club for holiday homes. Once accepted, members pledge their homes, specifying the dates they are willing to let them out; in return they get credits equivalent to the swankiness of their home and the desirability of the time slots they are offering. These they can spend by booking other homes.游客希望能深度入乡随俗,导致网上私宅互换居住行为不断增多。这其中就包括了HomeExchange.com网以及规模更小、也更为奢华的3rdhome.com等网站,后者属于专为度假家庭务、类似汽车俱乐部的网站。一旦接受协议,签约成员必须严守承诺,明确自家愿意出租的时段;作为回报,他们就获得与自家奢华程度以及可供出租时段相对应的信用分,自己预租别人家的房子时可当现金使用。The benefits of home swapping are financial — there’s no income from your guests, so no tax to pay — and fantastical — a steady supply of offers from homeowners in Brazil and the Bahamas to swap with your Kensington duplex will feed daydreams to brighten up the rainiest London workday.私宅互换既能带来经济好处(入住客人并不付房费,因此无须额外付税),也能让美梦成真——巴西与巴哈马的房主源源不断要求与诸位位于伦敦肯辛顿(Kensington)的复式住宅互换居住,此举能让上班的伦敦人浮想联翩,一扫城市阴雨绵绵的天气。As well as the boom in top-end rentals, sites to cater for a range of specialist owners are springing up thick and fast. In the land of the free and home share of the brave, Ryan Galiotto co-founded Kinkbnb.com when one of his friends was barred from a major US home rental site for including pictures of her fully equipped sex dungeon. Back in East Hampton, Solomon may be leading fellow baby boomers into a new dawn of technology-enabled home rental, but that is one site that he won’t be using to list his island.除了豪宅招租激增外,专为各色专用房主务的网站也如雨后春笋般涌现。在崇尚自由、私宅共享的英国,瑞恩加廖托(Ryan Galiotto)一位好友的招租私宅因包含“设施一应俱全”的性地牢照片而被美国某知名家租网站拒之门外,于是愤而与人合办了Kinkbnb.com网站。再次说说东汉普顿,所罗门也许正把同年龄段的婴儿潮一代人(baby boomer)带入科技为依托的家租新时代,但他不会在上述网站上招租自家的小岛豪宅。 /201509/401122

  Cue the sweaty palms.这可能会让你吓得手心出汗。Travelers will soon be able to walk across the world#39;s longest and highest glass-bottom bridge, which spans two cliffs in China#39;s Hunan province.游客们很快就可以体验这座世界最长最高的玻璃桥了。这座桥建在中国湖南省,横跨两座悬崖。This week, workers were photographed installing the bridge#39;s first piece of glass.本周,工人被拍到正在桥上安放第一块玻璃。Set against dramatic landscapes in Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, the bridge is 430 meters long, six meters wide and hovers over a 300-meter vertical drop.这座桥悬于半空,全长430米,宽6米,垂直高度达300米。站在桥上面可以一览张家界国家森林公园的壮丽景观。Construction on the bridge was originally expected to be finished at the end of 2015. It#39;s now set to open in May this year.玻璃桥原本预计将在2015年底完工,最新消息称将于今年5月份开放。World#39;s highest catwalk?世界最高的T台?Designed by Israeli architect Haim Dotan, the glass-bottom bridge will also feature the world#39;s highest bungee jump and serve as a runway for fashion shows.这座玻璃桥由以色列建筑师渡堂海设计。桥上还设有世界最高的蹦极跳台,同时还可作为时装表演的T台。Hanging above Zhangjiajie Grand Canyon, it will be able to hold up to 800 people at once.这座桥悬挂在张家界大峡谷的上空,一次可以容纳800名游客。Digital renderings of the bridge highlight the architectural firm#39;s vision -- to build a glass structure that fades into the clouds.玻璃栈道的数字效果图展现了建筑公司的愿景——建一座高耸入云的玻璃建筑。Stunning as the view is, tourists will likely t carefully.尽管桥上美景震撼人心,游客们在行走的时候还是会小心翼翼。In October last year, cracks appeared in a mountainside glass walkway in Yuntaishan Scenic Park, in China#39;s central Henan province, just two weeks after opening.去年10月,河南省云台山世界地质公园新建的玻璃栈道开通后仅仅两周就出现了裂纹。The incident sent visitors running and screaming in panic, according to witnesses.目击者称,事故发生时游客们奔跑、尖叫,全都吓坏了。Park officials said the damage was superficial and posed no threat to safety.公园方面解释说,玻璃栈道的裂纹只是表面破损,不会对安全构成威胁。 /201601/424724

  

  The CIA has released thousands of declassified documents on flying saucers, aliens and other unexplained phenomena.美国中央情报局(CIA)日前公布了数千份有关飞碟、外星人及其他未解之谜的解密文件。#39;We#39;ve decided to highlight a few documents both skeptics and believers will find interesting,#39; the agency said on its website.中央情报局在官网上发表声明说:‘我们决定公开几份文件,它们将会引起怀疑者和信奉者的兴趣。’The post continued: #39;Below you will find five documents we think X-Files character Agent Fox Mulder would love to use to try and persuade others of the existence of extraterrestrial activity.#39;声明称:“我们相信,接下来的五份文件会连《X档案》中的特别探员穆德也想要加以利用,试图说他人外星活动真实存在。”All of the documents are dated from the late 1940s to the 1960s, but were top-secret until now.这些文件可追溯到20世纪40年代末到60年代,在此之前它们一直都是绝密文件。One of the files attached to the post is a document from East Germany in 1952, where agents were called to investigate what witnesses described as a #39;huge flying pan#39;.在公布的文件中,有一份来自1952年的东德,文件记录了特工人员对目击者描述的“巨型飞盘”的调查。The object was said to have a diameter of about 15 meters, according to the document.据这份文件记载,该物体直径约为15米。Similar flying saucers were also spotted in North Africa and Spain, the report said.报告称,在北非和西班牙也发现了类似的飞碟。#39;The picture [of the object] shows a diagonal stripe of diminishing width and lighter in shade than the sky over the dark bulk of a building cornice,#39; it was noted.文件还记载道:“从照片来看,该物体表面呈宽度递减的斜条纹,它比飞檐上方的天空颜色更浅。”Included with some of the documents were three pictures of the alleged extraterrestrials.在部分文件中还附有所谓的外星生物的三张照片。One of the photos - taken by British student Alex Birch in 1962—claimed to show a group of flying saucers flying over the city of Sheffield in the UK.其中一张照片是由英国学生亚历克斯·伯奇于1962年拍摄。这张照片展示了一群飞碟飞过英国谢菲尔德市的上空。However the photo was proven to be a hoax.然而,这张照片后来被实是一场骗局。The files also detail a case of flying saucers that were spotted over what was formerly Belgian Congo.这些档案还对在比属刚果(刚果旧称)发现的飞碟事件进行了详细的记载。The document reveals that two #39;fiery discs#39; were seen over a uranium mine, and that the discs had #39;glided curves and changed position many times#39;.据文件披露,在铀矿上空发现了两个“火盘”,它们沿曲线轨迹滑翔,并多次变换位置。It then adds: #39;Suddenly, both discs hovered in one spot and then took off in a unique zigzag flight to the north east.文件中写道:“突然,两个飞碟在一个地方盘旋,随即又沿独特的之字形轨迹向东北方飞去。#39;A penetrating hissing and buzzing sound was audible to onlooker below. The whole performance lasted 10 to 12 minutes.#39;“目击者听到一阵尖利的嘶嘶声和嗡嗡声。飞碟从出现到消失持续了10到12分钟。”An aircraft was then set to investigate the object, and got with meters of the saucer and according to the pilot, the inner core of it remained totally still while the a knob opening could be seen from the outside.一架飞机随后被派来侦查该物体,并飞到距飞碟几米远处。据飞行员说,飞碟内核区完全静止不动,从外部可以看到一个球形突出物。The pilot then gave up his pursuit when the #39;disc#39; appeared to disappear.当“飞碟”消失后,飞行员也停止了他的追踪。Also contained in the files is the case in Socorro, New Mexico in 1964, when police officer Lonnie Zamoraspotted a large flame rise from the ground and pierce the sky above a remote patch of desert.这些档案中也包含了1964年发生在新墨西哥州索科罗的案例。当时警察朗尼·萨莫拉发现沙漠远处一团巨大火焰腾空而起,划破天空。He went to investigate and found a shiny object the size of a sedan perched on the hilltop, which was oval in shape and aluminium in color.他走过去想一探究竟,发现在山顶处有一个轿车大小的发光物体,椭圆状,呈金属铝的颜色。The object then began to rise into the air and then sped away from him over the mountains and disappeared.随即,该物体开始升上天,快速越过山头,然后从他眼前消失了。The release of the documents coincide with the long-awaited return of The X-Files on Sunday.这些文件的公开恰逢影迷期待已久的《X档案》在周日回归。The beloved show was rebooted by the Fox Network after 10 years, with its two original stars reprising their roles.这场深得观众喜爱的科幻剧时隔十年之后,由福克斯电视网续拍。原来的两大主演也将回归。 /201602/425429。

  Jin Dynasty金朝Social Economy社会经济During the early years of the Jin, the frequency of hostilities caused the economy to stagnate.金朝早期,接连的战争使经济停滞。With a view to promoting commercial development, Emperor Taizu, adopted a policy of reducing trade barriers which included the establishment of a trading relationship with the Song.为了促进商业发展,金太祖采取了减少贸易壁垒的政策,其中包括建立与宋朝的贸易关系。This soon had an effect and expedited the recovery and development of commerce.这个政策很快取得了成效,加快了商业的复苏与发展。Furthermore, he revitalized agriculture through tax reduction and exemptions so as to encourage the farming community to trade with the neighboring tribes.不仅如此,太祖还通过降低和免除税收鼓励农民与周边的部落进行贸易并以此振兴农业。This brought about economic prosperity from the reign of the Prince of Hailing to the reign of Emperor Zhangzong.这些举措带来了从海陵王到金长宗时期的经济繁荣。The flourishing economy also benefited from a monetary reform that was introduced in 1198 during the reign of Emperor Zhangzong.繁盛的经济同时还得益于1198年金长宗执政时推行的货币改革。For the first time, silver was used as legal tender.银子第一次被用作法定货币。This reform was an important milestone in the history of currency and was to have a far-reaching influence on the currency system of later dynasties and even modern times.这场改革是货币史上的一个重要的里程碑,并对之后的朝代乃至今日的货比系统造成了深远的影响。 /201512/406497

  

  

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