明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年03月25日 05:34:37
Books and Arts; Book Review;The future of Europe;A declinists case文艺;书评;欧洲的未来;一个衰落论者的观点After the Fall: The End of the European Dream and the Decline of a Continent. By Walter Laqueur.《衰落之后》:关于欧洲梦的终结和欧洲大陆的衰落, 作者:瓦特·拉克尔。A distinguished European historian who now lives and works in America, Walter Laqueur has turned into a leading prophet of European decline. His new book, “After the Fall”, stands as a summary of many pet themes: that the European Union has a weak economy with too lavish a welfare state and little capacity for reform, a shrinking population and, worst of all, too many Muslim immigrants.瓦特·拉克尔是一位杰出的欧洲历史学家,现居于美国,他已经成为欧洲衰落的主要预言者。他的新作《衰落之后》总结了许多目前备受关注的主题:欧盟的经济陷入虚弱状态,主要原因是太慷慨的福利状况、太少的改革能力,不断缩小的人口,以及最糟糕的是,太多的穆斯林移民。Mr Laqueur makes many telling points. The euro crisis (which, like most observers, he did not foresee) has laid bare many of the continents economic ills. It has confirmed the insouciance of Mediterranean countries, in particular, over the urgent need to improve their competitiveness. Europes demographic outlook is worrying, with an ageing population dependent on a shrinking workforce—a picture that gets worse as one moves eastward. And no European country has been a shining success at assimilating immigrants, especially (but not only) from Muslim countries.拉克尔先生提出了许多生动的观点。欧洲危机(就像大多数观察家一样,他也没有预见到)深刻揭示出欧洲大陆的许多经济症结。特别的是,它实了地中海国家对于提升它们国家的竞争力的紧迫需要的满不在乎。欧洲的人口年龄分布状况令人担忧,老龄化情况严重,而老年人赖以抚养的年轻劳动力数量萎缩,这一情况越往欧洲东部方向,就越为严重。并且,没有一个欧洲国家在融合移民方面具有显著的成功,特别是(但不仅仅是)吸纳那些来自穆斯林国家的移民方面。Yet overall the authors gloom is still excessive. Europes economic performance over the past decade has not been appreciably worse than Americas, for example. Although it has a few basket-case countries, it also has (in Scandinavia and Germany, for instance) some of the worlds strongest and most competitive economies. Moreover, the euro crisis is leading to more extensive reforms to repair battered public finances, increase liberalisation and bolster competition than would have seemed possible a few years ago.尽管具有以上所有这些不利因素,但是作者的悲观情绪还是太多了。比如,过去十年欧洲的经济表现并不会比美国的经济表现有可察觉到的差距。尽管欧洲存在几个经济状况糟糕无比的国家,然而欧洲也拥有(例如斯卡迪纳维亚和德国)一些世界上最强大和最具竞争力的经济体。此外,与几年前所可能采取的措施相比,欧洲危机会导致欧洲国家采取更广泛的改革来修复重创的公共财政,促进自由化,以及鼓励竞争。A bigger objection is the books repeated and excessive stress on the supposedly damaging effects of Muslim immigration. Mr Laqueur stops short of subscribing to the worst fears of “Eurabia” once fashionable in right-wing American circles. But he overstates Islams sp (there are perhaps 20m Muslims in Europe, just 4% of its current population of 500m). And he is surely wrong when he argues that Muslims will not assimilate, that sharia law may become widesp or that large parts of many European cities will come to resemble north Africa. An ageing continent needs immigrants. Moreover, both Turkey (which Mr Laqueur mostly traduces) and the Arab spring (which he barely mentions) suggest that reform and liberal democracy can, albeit with difficulties and arguments along the way, be made compatible with Islam.一个更大的异议是关于这本书对于臆测的穆斯林移民的灾难性影响的重复和过度的强调。拉克尔先生没有采用曾经在右翼美国群体当中盛极一时的“阿拉伯化的欧洲大陆”的最深的恐惧。但是他过分夸大了伊斯兰教的发展(在欧洲大概有2000万穆斯林,只占现在欧洲5亿人口的4%)。可以确定的是,他有许多错误的地方,比如他认为穆斯林教众将不会融入欧洲大众,伊斯兰教法也许会在欧洲广泛传播,或者许多欧洲城市的大部分将变得和北非一样。一个不断老龄化的大陆需要移民。此外,土耳其(拉克尔先生曾经诋毁过)和阿拉伯之春运动(他很少提到)都表明,尽管在整个过程中具有重重困难和争议,但是改革和自由民主能够与伊斯兰教和谐相处。The authors harangues against Muslim immigration disfigure what is otherwise an interesting and provocative book. So do several small errors that should have been picked up by a more careful publisher. The siloviki are not the political class in Russia, but a specific group linked to its security services; Greece joined the EU in 1981, not 2000, and Croatia will join in 2013, not 2011; the former mayor of London is called Ken not Neil Livingstone and the mayor of Amsterdam is Job not Jeff Cohen.作者对于穆斯林移民的长篇大论毁掉了原本会是一本具有趣味和引起争议的书。更仔细的出版商原本应该找出一些小错误。西罗维基不是俄罗斯的政治阶级,而是与俄罗斯的安全部门有关联的特殊组织;希腊是在1981年加入欧盟,而不是2000年,克罗地亚将在2013年加入欧盟,而不是2011年;伦敦的前任市长名叫肯而不是内尔·利文斯通,阿姆斯特丹的市长是乔而不是杰夫·科恩。In his conclusion Mr Laqueur concedes that “the prophets of declinism have been frequently wrong.” Nothing daunted, he goes on cheerily to assert that the EU may break up. Yet though his predictions may be dubious, his analysis is worth ing and pondering, especially by those who before the euro crisis were fond of declaring that Europe was showing the world a way to a better future.在他的书的结尾拉克尔先生承认“预言衰退的预言家经常都被明是错的”。但他毫无畏惧,他还是继续笃定的宣称欧盟或许会解体。尽管他的预言或许是值得怀疑的,但他的分析值得研读和深思,特别是对于那些在欧洲危机之前热衷于宣称欧洲向世界展示了一条通向更美好未来的道路的人。 /201301/222552Love Really Does Hurt?爱很伤?In a recent study, scientists observed that when the participants felt rejected,在最新的科学研究里,科学家发现被测试者有以下现象:如果他们感觉到他们被人拒绝的话,the flow of blood increased to the area of their brain known as the anterior cingulated cortex.在人们熟知的大脑前环带皮层的血液流动量会增加。This same area has been associated with the emotional response to unpleasant physical pain.这个地方是人们感觉生理上的疼痛时情感的反应。The same part of the brain apparently responds to both physical bruises and bruised feelings.大脑的同一个部分可以对身体和心灵的创伤作出反应。This may signal that the need for social connections is as strong as the need to stay out of physical harm.这事可以反映出我们与社会的融合跟我们要免于受到身体伤害一样重要。For mammals, apparently, being excluded from a group can be dangerous, and even deadly.而对于哺乳动物来说,显然,被群体排斥在外是很危险的,甚至是致命的。I mean, evolutionarily speaking, living and working in a group is a key component of how well humans have managed to survive.我的意思是,从进化论的角度讲,在族群中工作和生活是人类生存优劣的关键因素。This means we have to stop dismissing emotional pain as something imaginary.这意味着我们必须停止漠视情感伤痛,不要把它作为想象的东西。And the next step might be to test whether the extent to which you feel comfortable socially helps lessen the pain of rejection.接下来可能就是要测验出哪些社交中让你觉得舒的事情可以帮助减轻被拒绝的痛苦。 /201212/213949

Spotting these rings from a backyard telescope is a treat.从后院的望远镜观察这些土星环是一种不错的选择。In an instant, they can all but disappear when Saturn tilts toward the sun.在一瞬间, 当土星朝太阳倾斜他们会全部消失。The overwhelming thing that a US space tourist would be struck by is how incredibly thin they are.令人震惊的是美国的太空游客们也将会因其极为稀薄而受困。They are no thicker than about one or two stories in a modern day building.他们和当代建筑的一层或者两层相比不是很厚。Interested in seeing for yourself? Strap in, space travelers, its quite a ride.为看到自己感兴趣吗?系好安全带,太空旅行者们,这是一次非常快的旅程。After seven years and a billion miles of space, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft faces its greatest challenge on June 30th, 2004.经过七年和十亿英里的太空旅程,在2004年6月30日,卡西尼·惠根斯航天器面临最大的挑战。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/185126

Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:I live with my boyfriend, Mike, in a very small apartment. Last month, his mother and 14-year-old sister moved in. They had nowhere else to go.我和我的男友迈克住在一个非常小的公寓里。上个月,他的母亲和他14岁的搬了进去。她们无处可去。His mom has no money and nothing to contribute except for some food stamps, which keep the pantries slightly stocked. When we buy food, we have to buy enough for four.迈克的妈妈除了一些食品券之外一无所有。这些食品券把食品室都塞满了。如今,我们买饭要买四个人的。We have no idea when she will be able to move out. Our electric bill has doubled and we are paying a lot more for water. Mike and I are having trouble making ends meet, and I dont sense much effort on his mothers part to find work. She is only looking for a specific type of job.我们不知道她什么时候搬走。我们的电费增加了一倍,水费也涨了很多。我和迈克入不敷出了。我感到他的母亲并没有努力寻找工作。她只是在寻找她想要的工作。This is taking a toll on our relationship. How do we tell her to just take any job she can get and move out? - Squished这令我们的关系紧张起来。你能告诉我们,怎样让她对工作不再挑拣然后搬出我们的公寓吗?;;;一个为生活所迫的人;Dear Squished:You cant tell her anything. Mike has to do it. Mike needs to give Mom a deadline for getting a job (perhaps three months), making it clear that if she cannot find one in her particular field by then, she must take whatever allows her to pay rent. She should not be freeloading. However, Mike may be unwilling to stick with such an ultimatum, so consider moving out until this resolves itself.亲爱的;为生活所迫的人;:你不能对她说些什么,但迈克可以跟她说。迈克需要给他妈妈制定一个期限(比如3个月),在这期间她必须找到工作。和她说清楚,如果她最后无法找到她想要的工作,她就必须接受任何可撑她房租的的工作。她不应依赖别人。但是,迈克可能不愿意对他的妈妈发出最后通牒,所以让她搬出去这事还是顺其自然吧。201203/173236

  Before we take this giant leap,在我们进行这次巨大的飞跃前,we need to be able to carry everything needed for a 3-year round trip with us.我们需要准备为期三年往返旅行的东西。This is a much larger effort than getting to the moon.这比到达月球要花费更多的努力。This is the Apollo Mission unstarioates.这就是目前的阿波罗任务。At this point, we know at least as much as the engineers knew the time they agreed on to land on the moon.在这一点上,我们至少知道很多工程师知道他们同意踏上月球。And they had only 9 years so I think once the nation decides they really want to land humans on the Mars.他们只有9年,所以我认为一旦国家决定他们真正想要让人类踏上火星的土地。The system can be designed, developed and built.该系统可以被设计,开发和建造。Fast forward to future, after 6-month crossing the blackness of space,快进到未来,6个月后穿过黑暗的空间,things suddenly get a lot more interesting.事情突然就变得愈加有趣。The combination of higher approach speed,接近速度越来越高,a thin atmosphere and twice the gravity of the moon,一层很薄的大气和月球引力的2倍,makes Mars one of the hardest places to land in the solar system, even for robots.这使火星成为了太阳系中最难到达的地方,甚至对机器人而言也是如此。You hit the top of the Martian atmosphere.你挑战的是火星的大气层。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/179225

  Mike: Hey! Watch where youre sitting, Miss. Piggy! Theres not enough room on the sofa for you.迈克:嘿!小母猪,看看你坐的位子!沙发都容不下你了。Amanda: Put a sock in it! You need to shed a few kilograms as well.阿曼达:闭嘴!别光说我,你也该减减肥了。Mike: Well, Ive been mulling that dilemma over actually. I about the latest diet that promises rapid weight loss in only one week.迈克:嗯,我也一直觉得进退两难。我读到了最新的减肥方法,它承诺仅用一星期就可快速减肥。Amanda: Sounds like another ridiculous fad to me. I suppose youve got to wrap yourself in cellophane and sit in a sauna!阿曼达:又是一个荒谬的时髦。我觉得你应该把自己包在玻璃纸里,然后去蒸桑拿!Mike: Very funny. Actually, it had something to do with eating fewer carbohydrates and more protein. Apparently that makes your body burn its fat supplies for energy.迈克:很有趣。其实,我们应该少摄入碳水化合物,多摄入蛋白质。显然,这样可以燃烧掉你身体里的脂肪。Amanda: Hmm. Well, my doctor said that the best way to slim down is to think about your long-term health. Most people resort to crash diets, but let themselves go when theyve finished. The whole point is to change the way you eat permanently.阿曼达:嗯。我的医生告诉我,减肥的最好的方式就是要为你的长期健康着想。大多数人选择急速减肥,但当他们减肥成功时,自己的身体也垮了。我们只需要改变我们饮食方式就可以了。Mike: I see. So, theres nothing wrong with eating whatever you like, but you should just slowly phase out the really deplorable stuff, like junk food.迈克:我明白了。我们吃什么都可以,但是要逐渐摒弃毫无营养可言的食物,例如那些垃圾食品。Amanda: Basically thats it. My doctors mantra is ;Eat less, eat well, exercise more.;阿曼达:大体如此。我的医生的箴言就是;;少吃,吃好,多锻炼。;Mike: Youve just got to keep at it then.迈克:你一直坚持这样吧?Amanda: Yeah. Dieting isnt for quitters.阿曼达:是的。节食减肥可不是一夕而就的。201203/174182。


  Science and Technology Three-dimensional printing An image of the future科技 3D印刷 印刷未来One of the biggest manufacturers in the world gives 3D printing a go世界龙头机器制造商用3D印刷术进行了一次格外成功的应用ULTRASOUND scanners are used for tasks as diverse as examining unborn babies and searching for cracks in the fabric of aircraft.超声波扫描器的应用领域很广,小到用于检查胎儿,大到飞行器机体瑕疵检测等。They work by sending out pulses of high-frequency sound and then interpreting the reflections as images.机理过程是,通过发射高频声波脉冲信号对反射信号进行成像解读。To do all this, though, you need a device called a transducer.但完成该过程,你不能缺少一台叫做‘压电式换能器的设备。Transducers are made from arrays of tiny piezoelectric structures that convert electrical signals into ultrasound waves by vibrating at an appropriate frequency.压电式换能器是由具有‘压电效应的一系列敏感元件机构组成。敏感元件机构通过‘定频震荡将电信号转换成超声波。Their shape focuses the waves so that they penetrate the object being scanned.机构的特定外形可聚焦超声波,对被扫描的物体产生穿透作用。The waves are then reflected back from areas where there is a change in density and on their return the transducer works in reverse, producing a signal which the scanner can process into a digital image.超声波会从密度发生变化的介质反射回来,这时压电式换能器会反向操作产生信号,再经过扫描器的处理,最后进行数字成像。To make a transducer by painstakingly micro-machining a brittle block of ceramic material can take many hours of work, though.压电式换能器需要用到陶瓷材料,而精密地加工一块精细的陶瓷材料就要耗费几个小时的工作时间。As a result, even as the size and cost of the console that controls the scanner has fallen with advances in microelectronics (some are now small enough to fit in a doctors pocket and cost a few hundred dollars), the cost of making the probe itself remains stubbornly high—as much as ten times that of the console.随着微电子领域中,技术的突飞猛进,控制扫描仪的电路板无论从体积还有成本都有很大程度的优化变小和降低。有些电路板小到可以装进医生口袋里面,成本也不过几百美元的价格。而制作换能器探头的成本却一直居高不下,跟电路板相比,探头的制作成本大概是一块电路板的10倍左右。At least, it does if you use traditional ;subtractive; manufacturing techniques like cutting and drilling.即使不考虑体积及成本的情况下,传统的‘对比相减式加工流程技术也能完成这些工作,比如切割,机钻等。However GE, a large American conglomerate, is now proposing to make ultrasound transducers by ;additive; manufacturing—or three-dimensional printing, as it is also known.而GE作为美国的一个庞大的企业集团正考虑采用‘对比添加式的加工流程(或者又称大家所熟悉的‘3D印刷)来加工超声波压电式换能器。A new laboratory at the firms research centre in Niskayuna, New York, is taking a hard-headed look at the technique, which some see as a fad and others as the future,GE在纽约Niskayuna地区的研发中心新成立了一个实验室,目前该实验室正本着理性实际的态度(非一时狂热)对该项技术进行研发,力图找到哪些产品用‘对比添加式而非‘对比相减式的技术流程加工生产更加适合。一些人认为,对该项技术的研发只不过是一时狂热。and working out which products might be made more efficiently by addition rather than subtraction.还有一些人声称,目前的时机并不成熟,对该项技术的研发仅仅具有‘将来时的意义罢了。Ultrasound transducers were an early pick both because of the complicated geometry needed to focus the sound waves and because ceramics are harder than metals to cut and drill accurately.最初选择超声波压电式换能器来作为‘3D印刷术的对象原因有两点。一是该换能器用来聚焦声波的机体外形非常复杂,二是它用到的陶瓷材料比金属的硬度要高很多,很难进行精准地切割和机钻。But they are easy to print.而用‘3D印刷术却很容易解决这两个难题。The GE process for making a transducer begins by sping onto the print table a thin layer of ceramic slurry containing a light-sensitive polymer.GE对加工换能器的方法是首先在印刷台上撒上薄薄的一层陶瓷粘土,其中混入一种光敏聚合体。This layer is exposed to ultraviolet light through a mask that represents the required pattern.然后用紫外线通过露光模板的光孔照射到印刷台的粘土层,以此塑造出需要的模型图案。Wherever the light falls on the polymer it causes it to solidify, binding the particles in the slurry together.光敏聚合体一经被紫外线照射就会立即变得坚硬,粘土中的粒子随即凝结固化。The print table is then lowered by a fraction of a millimetre and the process repeated, with a different mask if required.接下来,印刷台会以不超过一毫米的距离向下位移,然后重复整个上面这一过程,如果有必要,需要重新更换一个新的露光模板。And so on. Once finished, the solidified shape is cleaned of residual slurry and heated in a furnace to sinter the ceramic particles together.以此反复处理直到整个过程结束,再进行清理成模上的残余粘土,最后把成模放入熔炉,以低于熔点的温度进行焙烧,最终完成陶瓷粒子的凝固收缩聚合。More work will be needed to turn the process into a production-y system.该处理流程在具有批量生产体系能力之前,还需要做很多的工作。But Prabhjot Singh, who leads the project, hopes that it will be possible to use it to make not just cheaper ultrasound probes, but also more sensitive ones that can show greater detail.但项目负责人Prabhjot Singh表示,希望不仅仅制造出成本相对低廉的超声波探头,最好探头的灵敏性也会更高,这样可以让我们通过成像看到更加细节化的信息。Although researchers have had new transducer designs in mind for years, it has been impractical to construct them subtractively. Additive manufacturing could change that.多年以来,压电式换能器的研究者们一直都有新型设计的想法,但应用‘对比相减式的加工流程实际上很难能把这样的构想变为现实,而‘对比添加式很可能会使这种困顿得到改善。The new laboratory will look at other forms of additive manufacturing, too.GE的新实验室还将研究其它‘对比添加式的加工流程。Some 3D printers sp metal powders on the print table and sinter the pattern with lasers or electron beams, rather than using masks.比如一些3D印刷机在印刷台铺撒金属粉末之后,采用露光模板以外的激光或电子束方式进行热凝处理来产生样模。Others deposit thin filaments of polymer in order to build structures up.其它流程,如混入聚合体热敏细丝通过自加固原理进行聚合以产生成模。GE is interested in how the technology could be used right across the firms businesses, from aerospace to power generation and consumer products, according to Luana Iorio, head of manufacturing technologies at GE Global Research.GE全球研发中心‘制造技术中心主任Luana Iorio指出,GE旨在为各种商业形式,包括象航空航天、能源及消费产品等领域提供令人满意的‘3D印刷技术。The gains include less waste and the ability to make bespoke parts more easily.这种技术的获益在于节约耗材和使第三方定制个性化零部件变得更加容易。But one of the most compelling advantages is freeing designers from the constraints of traditional production.但最无可争辩的优势之一是让设计者从传统工艺的桎梏中解脱出来。Those constraints include having to design things not in their optimal shape but to be machined, often as a series of pieces.这些限制包括,设计者不得不用多个零部件去实现一个功能,不能从最优化的外形尺寸来设计产品。Additive manufacturing can combine parts into a single item, so less assembly is needed. That can also save weight—a particular advantage in aerospace.‘对比添加式可以整合零部件,避免了一些繁琐的机械组装过程,同时减轻了重量,这点对航空航天领域尤为有利。These new production opportunities mean manufacturers, big and small, are about to become a lot more inventive.在这种新的生产有利背景下,意味着制造商们,无论规模大小,都将变得更加具有创造性。 /201212/213562The Lick party was forced to use substandard equipment.这个力克党被迫使用不合格的设备。Campbell has no choice but to take the risk.坎贝尔别无选择,只能冒这个险。He has a total solar eclipse all to himself and may never have another opportunity like this again.这是只有属于他自己的一次日全食,他们可能从来不会再有像这样的另一次机会。Campbells part travels to Goldendale, Washington and gets y for the coming eclipse.坎贝尔前往华盛顿,准备迎接即将到来的日食。It was close to home so the whole family went.由于离家非常近,所以全家人都动身前往。Campbells goal is to photograph the stars that emerge in the brief period when the sun is hidden by the moon.坎贝尔的目标是拍摄当太阳被月球档上而星星出现的短暂时段。But on Saturday, June 8th 1918, it seems that the universe is once again not y to yield its secrets.但在1918年6月8日的周六,似乎宇宙再次不准备揭示它的秘密。Clouds moved in and it looked like he wouldnt even get observations and Russia would be repeated which he hated.云爬了上来,它看起来就像甚至不想被观察而俄罗斯再次重复他讨厌的。And suddenly just at the crucial time when they needed the clear sky the clouds parted.忽然在这关键时间云层散开,他们需要晴朗的天空再次出现。Campbell begins taking photographs of the spectacle.坎贝尔开始拍摄。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/182163

  Books and Arts;America and Iran;Cloud computing;文艺;美伊问题;云计算;A Single Roll of the Dice: Obamas Diplomacy with Iran, by Trita Parsi.《孤注一掷:奥巴马的对伊政策》;特里塔·帕塞著;With dark rumours swirling of an attack on Irans nuclear programme, this new book by Trita Parsi is well-timed. The founder of the National Iranian American Council in Washington, DC, details American diplomacy with the Islamic Republic under Barack Obama. His analysis of the grim stalemate that has characterised relations between the Great Satan and the mullahs since 1979 is both absorbing and frustrating. It is a tale of missed opportunities, obduracy and short-sightedness, all which are pushing the Middle East towards greater instability.特里塔·帕塞新作的面世,伴随着针对伊朗核计划的漫天谣言,来的正是时候。作者曾创立了位于华盛顿特区的伊朗裔美国人全国理事会,在本书中,他详细阐述了奥巴马领导下的美国政府对伊斯兰共和国的外交路线。自1979年起,“大魔头”和“毛拉”之间的关系一直深陷僵局,作者对这一严峻状态的分析既引人入胜又令人沮丧,书中讲述了中东是如何因为错失良机、顽固执拗、目光短浅等缺点而一步步陷入更大的动荡之中。Under George Bush, Americas relationship with Iran festered. The two powers collaborated occasionally in Afghanistan, but with America driven by the premise that “we dont speak to evil”, detente was a distant possibility. America saw negotiations not as a tool of diplomacy but as a reward to be granted only to those states that had proved they were deserving of them. Iran, grouped with North Korea and Iraq as part of the “axis of evil”, was not.在乔治·布什领导期间,美伊关系交恶。两国曾在阿富汗事务上有过数次合作,但随着美国将“不与罪恶结交”作为外交前提,两国和解变得遥遥无期。对美国而言,协商不是一种外交手段,而是一个嘉奖,只有那些能明自己值得交往的国家才配和美国进行协商。作为和朝鲜、伊拉克为伍的“邪恶轴心国”,伊朗自然是不够格的。The inauguration of a new president who from the start promised the Muslim world respect and who offered the hand of American friendship to those willing to unclench their fist, prompted stirrings of hope, both in Iran and beyond, that this could be a new start. (Farsi speakers also noted that Obama means “He is with us”.)新任总统在参选之初就郑重保,将尊重穆斯林,并把美国的友好传达给所有愿意松开拳头的伊朗人。他的就职演讲给伊朗乃至整个穆斯林世界带来了一丝希望,新的开始仿佛就在眼前。(伊朗人还认为,奥巴马是“和我们站在一起的”)But the bitter mistrust that divides Iran and America, and the domestic considerations of leaders on both sides, eroded that initial optimism. Time and again in negotiations over Irans nuclear programme, America and its allies assumed Iranian duplicity and insincerity. For their part, the Iranians saw in Americas outstretched hand only the determination to snatch from their country its independence, rights and potential.然而仇视和不信任导致美伊两国决裂,加之双方领导人推行了一系列国内政策,这些都扑灭了尚在襁褓的希望之火。随着一次次对伊朗核计划的探讨,美国及其盟友们将伊朗视作伪善的骗子,而在伊朗看来,美国插手伊朗事务,就是为了剥夺他们的独立,权利和潜在的能力。Even during the deepest chill of the cold war, America and Russia found ways of talking. Today a frozen silence stretches from Tehran to Washington. “When you dont know whats going on, and you dont feel like you have somebody you can communicate with on the other side of the table, you are going to revert back to whats safe…and whats safe in the Iran context is demonization and just general negativity,” explains an American official.即便是在冷战最僵持的时期,美苏两国也曾设法进行沟通,而今,弥漫在伊朗和美国之间的是冰冷的沉默。“当你对现状毫无头绪,谈判桌上又话不投机,你就会退回到安全的状态,而在伊朗看来,所谓的安全状态就是将美国妖魔化,挑起大众的消极情绪。”一位美国官员如是解释。Irans reluctance to engage goes deeper: “Tehran cannot come to terms with Washington without risking an internal identity and legitimacy crisis.” Animosity towards America is written into the Islamic Republics DNA. If the relationship is restored, “we will dissolve ourselves,” admits Amir Mohebian, an Iranian conservative.伊朗的抵触情绪则日渐深重。“伊朗要重回谈判桌,就得冒着国家身份缺失和合法性危机的风险。”对美国的仇恨铭刻在伊斯兰共和国的血液里,伊朗保守派人士埃米尔·莫比安表示,一旦美伊关系恢复,“伊朗将会自我毁灭”。But diplomacy with Iran, maintains Mr Parsi, has never been pursued to the point of exhaustion. Look at Libya (before the recent uprising), Vietnam and Northern Ireland, he insists, and the painstaking years of quiet discussions with each of them. The talks between America and Iran, a few weeks here, a fortnight there, have never matched that. The approach has focused on the nuclear issue to the exclusion of all others, a take-it-or-leave-it attitude that has always been doomed. Negotiations such as these succeed not because the proposals are flawless or because both sides play fair, but “because the many flaws associated with the talks are overcome by the political will to reach a solution”.但帕塞表示,美方与伊朗的外交关系远没有走到尽头。他认为,和(暴动之前的)利比亚,越南和北爱尔兰,以及与它们多年痛苦而漫长的讨论协商相比,美伊两国间或进行的短期谈判绝对算不了什么。美伊接触的焦点一直围绕着核问题展开,回避了其他问题,双方态度也僵持在要么全盘接受,要么统统滚蛋的状态。而纵观那些成功的协商谈判,并不是因为提议有多么完美,或是谈判双方有多么公正,而是“因为希望解决问题的政治意愿克了谈判中出现的种种缺憾”。That political will, says Mr Parsi, has been absent. The mutual mistrust has left no margin for error. Neither has seen any domestic political benefit in pushing for a serious settlement. And now, with the tick-tocking of the nuclear clock growing ever more insistent, reconciliation looks less and less likely. The enmity between America and Iran, stoked by three decades of demonising each other, is no longer a phenomenon, concludes Mr Parsi. “It is an institution.”帕塞认为,美伊缺少的正是这种政治意愿。双方互不信任,因而无法容忍对方的任何过失,加之没有任何国内政治利益能推动美伊冲突得到切实解决。而现在,随着伊朗核武器的日渐面世,美伊和解的可能越来越小。30多年来,美伊两国相互攻击诋毁,两国间的敌对状态已经不再是一个现象,引用帕塞的话来说,“这已然是个习俗。” /201210/206565

  One of the really exciting and high level scientific interests is whether Venus geological active today. 一个真正令人兴奋及科学现在所关注的是现今金星地质是否活跃。Because there are reasons to think the clouds on Venus only exist because theres ongoing geological activity.因为我们有理由认为在金星的云层之所以存在是因为有正在进行的地质活动。So this is one of big secrets in Venus something we want to find out.所以这是一些我们想要知道的一个金星的大秘密。In recent years finding the source of Venus thick atmosphere has become surprisingly relevant for all of us down here on earth.近年来发现金星厚厚的大气层的来源已经成为令人惊讶的和我们所有人都在这个地球上有关。Half million of ton sulfur dioxide spilt into the atomsphere every year.每年超过半吨的二氧化硫泄入到大气中。The whole green house effect was not really recognized as a significant effect to influence planetary climate until we went to Venus and found that said to be night high with 9 high, whats wrong is this learned about this? 整个温室效应不是所认知的对气候有显著的影响,直到我们去金星才发现与所说的截然不同,这与我们所认知的不一样吗?About greenhouse effect. 关于温室效应。Ever wonder how alien a planet could be? How bad climate can get? 想知道一个外星星球会怎样吗?恶劣的气候因何而来?Try the planet next door, the best way to experience Venus is to to hitch an imaginary dirve on the Soviet Union Probe.试试隔壁的星球吧,检验金星的最好方法是在苏联探测器上安装一种虚拟的驱动。Well it would be a wild drive. 这将是一种非常狂野的驱动。The clouds started about 40 miles up , some 5 times higher than the earth.云开始上升约40英里,约地球上的5倍高。注:听力文本来源于普特 201203/175434

  Two years after a tainted milk scandal that left six children dead and 300,000 sick, Chinese researchers have discovered natural ;biomarkers; in cows milk which they intend to use as a new standard for testing the quality of milk.曾经导致6名儿童死亡,300,000名儿童生病的毒奶粉事件已经过去两年了,日前,中国科研人员研发了检测牛奶的新标准,他们发明了“生物标记法”。Weve found that there is a new group of molecules in milk called microRNAs. There are special characteristics related to these microRANs in the milk, so in the end we selected seven microRNAs as boimarkers to test its quality in raw milk and for using quality control.我们在牛奶中发现了一种名为microRNAs的分子。在牛奶中,microRNAs具有的独特特性使它成为了生物标记法的重要载体。科学家们选择了7种microRANs作为原料乳的生物标记和对比标记。In the paper published in Cell Research on Tuesday June 15th, Chinese scientist discribed how they analyzed raw milk taken from a farm in eastern China and found that they contain naturally occurring molecules called microRNAs.在6月15日周二发表的关于细胞研究的论文中,中国科学家们描述了他们是如何从华东地区的农场中选取原料乳,加以分析研究,并最终发现天然牛奶中携带的microRNAs分子。They can be used to test the quality of milk made in different places, but these seven microRNAs are relatively stable as we examine milk from different origins in stages of production. Since it is stable throughout, we can use it as a measure in testing raw milk.被标示的7种核糖核酸microRNAs将被用来检验不同地区牛奶的质量,而在检验过程中,这7种核糖核酸相对稳定。正是因为核糖核酸自始至终都很稳定的这一特质,它们才被用来检测原料乳。At least 50,000 babies across China were hospitalized in 2008. Many of them with kidney stones after drinking poor quality milk tainted with melamine. The scandal sparked intense public fury, and as a result many Chinese families who can afford to now rely on imported formula for their children.在2008年的毒奶粉事件中,有至少50,000名儿童住院接受治疗。喝了三聚氰胺超标的牛奶后,许多儿童都患上了肾结石。该事件引起了社会一片哗然。中国的家长们纷纷选择进口奶粉。Theoretically, if the milk is deluded or other things are added to the milk, theres no way to restore the microRNAs to its original level, so as long as we test and confirm the level of microRNAs, well be able to tell original raw milk from milk that has other additives.理论上说,假牛奶或含有添加剂牛奶中的核糖核酸是不能再恢复到原本形态的,所以只要我们能检测出牛奶中的核糖核酸,我们就能判断这些原料乳是否含有添加剂。Zhang said the seven molecules or biomarkers can be used to design test kits for sampling milk.张先生表示,这7中核糖核酸,或者说是生物标记,是用来检测牛奶的生物试剂。Jill Kitchener reports,Reuters.Jill Kitchener,路透社消息。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201206/188663。

  Business商业Diet products减肥商品A big, bad business点肥成金不现实Medical firms struggle to profit from weight-loss treatments制药公司试图从减肥治疗中获利OBESITY is an epidemic to some and an opportunity to others.肥胖症对某些人来说是传染病,对别的一些人来说则是机遇。More than two-thirds of Americans are overweight.超过三分之二的美国人已经超重。Find a way to battle the bulge and a huge profit might be made.找个办法和肥胖对抗,说必定就此大赚一笔。On February 22nd one pharmaceutical firm, Vivus, took a small step towards this goal.找个办法和肥胖对抗,说必定就此大赚一笔。A committee advising Americas Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that it approve Vivuss diet drug, Qnexa.2月22日,Vivus制药公司朝着这个目标前进了一步。给美国食品药物做咨询的一家委员会推荐,Vivus公司的减肥药Qnexa。However, the pills long-awaited final approval may not come until April, if at all.但是,如果获得批准,该药品的漫长的最终肯定直到四月份才会到来。The announcement mostly served as a reminder of what a struggle it is to turn fat into gold.公告主要是提醒人们,这是一场点肥成金的抗争。Pharmaceutical and medical-device companies are quite good at treating the conditions that come with obesity.制药和医疗器械公司非常善于解决肥胖带来的问题。However, they are dismal at helping consumers lose weight.但是他们无法帮助消费者战胜肥胖本身,减少体重。This is not for lack of trying.这不是因为缺乏尝试。Take the curious case of the gastric band.以古怪的胃部束带为例。Bariatric surgery can lead to weight loss in the long term. Hospitals can make money from all bariatric procedures, including gastric bypasses (in which the stomach is partitioned and the upper part connected directly to the small intestine), but the gastric band is a rare example of an opportunity for device-makers to profit from weight loss.肥胖治疗手术可以帮助患者在较长的时间内减少体重。医院就是从这些减肥疗程中赚钱,包括胃绕道手术(手术中,胃被切割,直接把上部跟小肠连接起来),但是胃部束带却是一个罕见的例子,被当成一个器械制造商用来从减肥中赚钱的法子。Allergan, best known for selling Botox, has tried to use its Lap-Band to tap the obesity market.Allergan公司以销售肉毒杆菌而出名,尝试用产品Lap-Band打入减肥市场。It is an inflatable loop which the surgeon fits near the top of the stomach, which helps the patient feel sated earlier.Lap-Band是一圈松紧带,外科医生可以用它绕住患者胃的上部,这样患者会提前有腹饱感。Allergan has captured about 70% of the worldwide market for gastric bands and balloons, but sales are now shrinking.Allergan公司在全球胃部束带和充气袋市场占有率达70%,但是如今销量却有所下降。The recession has sapped consumers desire for expensive surgery.经济不景气让消费者忍住做昂贵的手术的欲望。Some patients have had bands removed because they slipped or proved ineffective.有些病人甚至连束带也不用了,因为束带打滑或者没有效果。Last year the FDA approved the Lap-Bands use in patients who are only slightly overweight, but insurers have refused to pay.去年,美国食品药物同意,微超重病人使用 Lap-Band,但是保险公司却拒绝付款。In January David Pyott, Allergans chief executive, said he would scrap an effort to market the band for teenagers.一月份,Allergan公司首席执行官David Pyott说,他将放弃在年轻人束带市场的努力。He is now trying to convince insurers of Lap-Bands merits, arguing that the ,000 surgery is recouped in saved medical costs within four years.他目前试图让保险公司也看到Lap-Band的优点,他认为两万美元手术费可以在四年之内通过减少医疗出收回。There is some scepticism about his chances of success: ;The fact that banding is not as good as bypass has been known by everybody except the PR firms for the band,; says Lee Kaplan, director of the Weight Centre at Massachusetts General Hospital.至今仍有人怀疑他是否能成功:“事实上使用束带不必胃绕道手术好,所有人都知道,除了束带的公关公司,”马萨诸塞州中心医院体重中心主任Lee Kaplan如是说。Drug companies have had even more trouble than device-makers.制药公司的麻烦甚至比医疗器械公司的还要多。It has been 13 years since the FDA approved a prescription diet pill.从美国食品药物批准减肥药为处方药到如今已经过了十三年。That drug, Roches Xenical, has notorious gastrointestinal side-effects.瑞士罗氏制药公司的Xenical臭名昭著,该药会引发胃肠功能的副作用。The FDA rejected Vivuss Qnexa in 2010 over concerns for the safety of pregnant women and the quickening of patients heart rates.美国食品药物于2010年拒绝批准Vivus公司的Qnexa,因为担心该药对妇的安全造成伤害,担心该药会加快患者的心率。Vivuss new data apparently satisfied the FDAs advisory committee.Vivus公司新的数据显然让的咨询委员会满意。However, the agency may yet reject the drug.但是该局还是可能拒绝批准该药。Even if Qnexa is approved, it is unclear that patients will buy it.就算Qnexa获得批准,患者会不会买账仍不明了。Qnexa combines two treatments that are aly on the market.Qnexa结合了两种市面上上有的疗效。Both medicines are generic, which means that doctors may prescribe the existing drugs rather than Qnexas more expensive version.这两种药物都是非专利药,这说明医生可能会给患者开已有的药而不选择Qnexa,后者更贵。For now, it is more profitable to treat fat patients than to try to make them slim.到目前为止,治疗肥胖患者还是要比让他们减肥更有利可图。 /201211/207797


  The Invisible Hand无形的力量A: Whats going on?A:发生什么事了?B: Check out the setup, Yaoyao.B:瑶瑶,看一下都有些什么设备吧!A: A stove, an empty aluminum soda can, kitchen tongs, and a saucepan. Are you experimenting with a new recipe?A:火炉,铝制的的易拉罐,餐钳和平底锅。你是在做一个新的食谱吗?B:No, Im experimenting with air pressure.B:不是的,我是在做一个关于气压的实验。A:How?A:怎么做?B:First, I will put about a tablespoon of water in the soda can, and a little cold water in the saucepan. Now, I will heat the water in the soda can on the stove until it boils.B:我先在易拉罐里加入约一汤匙的水,在平底锅里加少许冷水。接着,将易拉罐放在火炉上加热至其沸腾。A: There steam coming out of the can.A:这样水蒸汽就从罐子里冒出来了。B: Good! Now watch, i will pick up the can with a kitchen tongs like this and put it face down in the cold water in the pan. Ready?B:对了!现在,我要用餐钳像这样将易拉罐夹起来,并将其正面放在有冷水的平底锅里。准备好了吗?A:Ready!A:准备好了!B:Here goes!B:看看会发生什么吧!A: Wow, the can collapse like with being crushed down by an invisible hand.A:哇噢,易拉罐碎了!就像被一只无形的手给压碎的!B: When the water in the can boiled, the water vapor pushed all the air out of the can. And when I flipped the can and put it in the pan, the cold water cooled the vapor, making it condense.B:因为在(易拉罐里的)水沸腾时,罐子里的所有空气都被水蒸汽排出。所以当我将罐子翻转过来放在平底锅里时,(锅里的)冷水将水蒸汽冷却、凝结。A:Which left the can empty inside, allowing the pressure of the air outside the can to crush it.A:这就使得易拉罐内部变空,从而让外面的气压将其粉碎。B: Exactly. Normal air pressure is about 15 pounds per square inch. Since the can was about three inches high and two inches wide, the air pressure on it was 15 pounds per six inches, or ninety pounds of air pressure used to crush the can.B:非常正确!正常的气压大约是每平方英寸15磅。由于易拉罐大约是3英寸高、2英寸宽,它周围的气压就是6平方英寸15磅,即每平方英寸90磅,从而将易拉罐粉碎。A: Very interesting!A:太有意思了! /201212/215899

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