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Qin Great Wall秦长城After Qin Emperor Shihuang unified China, he sent forces led by general Meng Tian to suppress the Huns, and gained much land.秦始皇统一中国后,他派将军蒙恬为首的部队去镇压匈奴,并获得辽阔的土地。In order to guard against the attacks from the Huns, Meng Tian led soldiers to build the world-renowned Great Wall.为防范来自匈奴的攻击,蒙恬率领战士建造了举世闻名的万里长城。In the Warring States Period (475----221B.C.), many states built the Great Wall as fortification.在战国时期 (公元前475-221年),许多国家建造了长城作为防御工事。The states of Qin, Zhao and Yan all once built some sections to resist the Huns invasions.秦、赵、燕都曾建造部分长城以抵御匈奴入侵。It was not until the Qin Dynasty (221----206B.C.) that Meng Tian connected the separate walls to form a defensive system on the northern border.直到秦朝(公元前221----206年)蒙恬才将分散的墙壁连接起来,在北部边境形成了一个防御性的系统。It took about nine years to finish and the wall stretched from Lintao (in the eastern part of today’s Gansu Prov-ince) in the west to Liaodong (in today’s Jilin Province) in the east.这个庞大的工程耗费了九年的时间才得以完成,长城从临洮(今甘肃省东部) 西部一直延伸到辽东(今吉林省)东部。The 5 000-kilometer-long wall not only served as a defense in the north but also symbolized the power of the emperor.绵延5000公里的长城不仅仅是北方的防御工事,更代表着帝国的权力。Further construction and extensions were made in the successive Han (206B.C.----220A.D.), Northern Wei (386----534), Northern Qi (550----577) and Sui (581----618) dynasties.其后的汉朝(公元前206年----公元220年),北魏(386----534)北齐(550----577)以及隋朝(581----618)都对长城进行了进一步的修缮和扩建。And in terms of both length and quality, the later constructions were better than that made in Qin.无论从长度还是质量上来看,这些后世的工程都比秦朝的要精良得多。The present Great Wall in Beijing is mainly remains from the Ming Dynasty (1368----1644).现今在北京保存下来的长城主要是明长城。During this period, bricks and granite were used when the workers laid the foundation of the wall and sophisticated designs and passes were built in the places of strategic importance.明朝时,石砖和花岗岩被用于建造长城的地基部分,而精密复杂的设计和关口则被建造在有重要战略意义的位置。To strengthen the military control of the northern frontiers, the Ming authorities divided the Great Wall into nine zones and placed each under the control of a Zhen (garrison headquarters).为加强对北方边境的军事控制,明朝廷将长城分为九个区,将其安排在每个镇 (驻军总部)的控制下。The Ming Wall starts from Yalujiang River (in today’s Heilongjiang Province), via today’s Liaoning, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, to Guansu.The total length reaches 12700 li (over 5 000 kilometers).明长城东起鸭绿江(今黑龙江省境内),经过辽宁、 河北、 内蒙古、山西、陕西、宁夏,绵延12700里(超过5000公里),西止甘肃。The Shanhaiguan Pass and the Jiayuguarv Pass are two well-preserved passes at either end.山海关和嘉峪关市迄今保存相对完好的两个关口,它们坐落在长城的两端。Its height varied from 5 to 10 meters and watch houses were built every 130 meters.长城的高度在5到10米之间,每隔130米就有一个瞭望塔。If enemies came to invade, hays blended with wolf shit was bum in the daytime, the smoke of which would rise very high so that sentinels could get the warn.如果有敌人入侵,干草掺杂狼粪,这在白天这可以充当送信兵——其燃烧后烟会高高地升起,哨兵因此得到了远方的警告。At night, firewood combined with sulphur would make so bright a fire that sentinels miles away could get noticed.到了晚上,木柴硫一起燃烧会发出明亮的火焰,甚至几公里外的哨兵都可以注意到。We can see frie remains of the Qin Wall today.我们在今天还可以看到秦长城的遗迹。Five miles to the north-west of Datong in Shanxi Province there is a purple wall whose name is Purple Pass.距今山西大同5英里外的西北方有一座紫色的长城,名曰紫关。And ten kilometers west to the Minxian city in Gansu Province we can also find remains of the Qin Wall.甘肃省岷县往西十公里处我们也可以找到的秦长城遗迹。The famous Badaling Great Wall we see today was built in the Ming Dynasty.而我们今天看到的著名的八达岭长城始建于明朝。 /201509/397330Denmark is once again distinguishing itself in the race against food waste—this time, with a supermarket hawking items once destined for the trash bin.在防止食物浪费方面,丹麦再一次走在了各国前列——这次,它的一家超市开始销售原本该扔进垃圾箱的东西。Those items might include treats for a holiday that happened last week, a ripped box of cornflakes, plain white rice mislabeled as basmati, or anything nearing its expiration date. In other words, perfectly edible items that are nonetheless considered unfit for sale by the retailers and manufacturers who donate them.比如,上周刚过的一个节日剩下了一些点心,外包装破损了的玉米片,标签错贴成印度香米的普通大米,以及任何临期食品。换句话说,其他商店和生厂商将自己认为不适合对外销售的东西捐给它出售,而这些东西完全可以放心食用。WeFood is not the first grocer in Europe to sell surplus food. But unlike so-called ;social supermarkets;—stores which serve almost exclusively low-income people—WeFood#39;s offerings are very intentionally aimed at the general public.“我们食铺”并不是欧洲第一家出售这种食品的超市。但与只针对低收入人群的所谓“福利超市”不同,“我们食铺”面向广大的普通消费者。The store#39;s goods are priced 30 to 50 percent lower than those in regular supermarkets, according to WeFood. The store has aly been a huge success. People have lined up before the store#39;s opening every morning since its launch on Monday.“我们食铺”称,其店里的商品价格比普通超市便宜三至五成。自2月22日开业以来,该超市顾客盈门。每天上午还没开门,店门前就已经排起了长队。But is this food safe to eat? Well, the ;sell by; date you see on many products actually refers to its freshness - not whether or not it#39;s going to do you any harm. In many cases, food that#39;s beyond this date won#39;t be as fresh as it once was but is still perfectly edible. Of course you should still be careful to avoid eating food that#39;s gone off, but you might find you don#39;t have to throw away as much as you think you do.这里销售的食品真的可以放心食用吗?事实上,许多食品包装上标注的“最好在某月某日前食用”,指的是它最新鲜的状态能维持多久,而不是说,过了那个日期,它就对人体有害了。许多情况下,过了这个日期,食品虽然没那么新鲜了,但仍然可以放心食用。当然,你还是要注意,千万别吃变质的东西,只是有些不该扔的最好不要扔。Denmark throws away about 700,000 tons of food every year, according to several estimates. In fact, food waste is a major problem for the whole world.据相关估算,丹麦每年大概扔掉约70万吨食物。事实上,食物浪费是个世界性大问题。Some 795 million people are undernourished globally, according to the World Food Program. Yet about a third of all food produced in the world—some 1.3 billion tons—is wasted each year, according to the ed Nations. The cost of global food wastage is about trillion a year.世界粮食计划署的统计显示,全球约有7.95亿人仍然处于吃不饱的状态。联合国的数据显示,世界上每年产出的食物中,约有三分之一(即13亿吨)被浪费掉了,相当于每年在这方面浪费一万亿美元。All of the store#39;s proceeds will go to DanChurchAid#39;s work in developing nations like South Sudan and Bangladesh.“我们食铺”的所有销售收入都将捐给“丹麦教会援助社”,用于资助南苏丹和孟加拉国等发展中国家。 /201603/428938Doctors are less likely to die in hospital, have surgery or be admitted to intensive care, than the general public, new research has revealed.一项新研究表明,比起普罗大众,医生死于医院、接受手术,或接受重症监护的几率更低。While most people report a wish to die at home rather than in a medical facility, the majority of deaths do occur in a hospital or nursing home setting.多数人都希望能在家安详地离开人世,但他们往往最终死于医院,或在养老院离世。However, a recent study suggests doctors are more likely to die in a manner more consistent with end-of-life wishes, than the general population.不过,近来一项研究表明,比起普罗大众,医生更有机会如自己所愿的那样安然离世。Experts suggest one of the reasons doctors may receive less intensive end-of-life care is because they are all too aware of the burden it places on both the patient and their loved ones.专家指出,医生较少接受临终陪护的原因之一,是他们在有生之年阅尽了病人和他们的家人在这方面所受的负担和苦楚。Another reason, they put forward, is that doctors know better than most the benefits of palliative care in the home—and are able to afford to pay for the often expensive nursing.另外,家庭安宁护理具有何种优势,医生也更心知肚明。而且,他们往往负担得起高额陪护费。The study examined whether doctors receive higher or lower intensity end-of-life treatments compared with non-physicians.研究人员收集了医生与非医护人员的数据样本,旨在比对两者在临终时接受的陪护情况。They examined the medical records of people aged 66 or older who died between 2004 and 2011 in Massachusetts, Michigan, Utah and Vermont.他们收集了马萨诸塞、密歇根、犹他与佛蒙特四州2004至2011年66岁(含)以上人口的医疗记录。Researchers concluded doctors were less likely to die in a hospital compared with the general population - 28 percent versus 32 percent.研究结论是,与普罗大众相比,医生死于医院病榻的几率较小。前者达32%,后者为28%。They were also less likely to have surgery—25 percent versus 27 percent—and were less likely to be admitted to intensive care—26 percent versus 28 percent.另外,医生接受手术,或需接受重症监护的几率也更低,分别为25%与26%。相较之下,普罗大众的几率则达27%与28%。The authors wrote: #39;The possible reasons physicians received less intense end-of-life care than others could be knowledge of its burdens and futility, as well as the benefits and the financial resources to pay for other treatment options, such as palliative care or skilled nursing required for death at home.#39;研究人员写道:“医生较少接受临终重症监护,或许因为他们明白此举徒劳无功,也可能因为他们更偏爱,且负担得起安宁护理、家庭陪护等其他方式。”Addressing the issue, Dr Jacquelyn Corley said: #39;There comes a time for every person when his or her identity is gone, and the quality of life should be valued more than the mere presence of it.#39;谈到临终陪护问题,杰奎琳·科利士总结道:“人到晚年,还谈什么身份不身份的。如何走得安详宁静,才是最值得关心的。”That, she said is a view shared by many healthcare professionals.她说,这一点,许多医护人员都心知肚明。 /201602/427443Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, happy and slim, according to new research.新研究显示,早睡早起有助于身体健康,保持心情愉悦,还有瘦身功效。A study that analysed the DNA of self-professed #39;nights owls#39; and #39;morning larks#39; found that people who like to rise early tend to be thinner than those who go to bed later.通过分析“夜猫子”和“早起鸟”的DNA,研究发现:早起的人会比晚睡的人更瘦。They are also less prone to depression and less likely to suffer from insomnia.早起的人罹患抑郁症和失眠症的几率也更小。Almost 90,000 people were asked if they were naturally a morning or a night person and had their DNA analysed.此项研究让近9万人选择自己是“夜猫子”还是“早起鸟”,并分析了他们的DNA。This revealed 15 genes that were linked to a person being a #39;lark#39; or an #39;owl#39;.研究结果表明,人类体内有15个基因与“早起还是晚睡”有关。A preference for mornings rose with age, with more than twice as many of over-60s describing themselves as morning types than under-30s.年龄越大,人起的就越早。认为自己是早起类型的人中,60岁以上的比30岁以下多出一倍。Women were more likely to enjoy mornings than men, the journal Nature Communications reports.《自然通讯》期刊中有文章表明,女性比男性更爱早起。The researchers, from the California-based genetic testing company 23andMe aren#39;t sure why a person#39;s body clock might be so strongly linked to health.此项研究的研究人员来自总部位于加利福尼亚州的个人基因检测公司23andMe,他们也无法确知生物钟与健康之间为何如此密切相关。But it might to be as simple as too many late nights taking their toll on evening types.但这背后的原因也许很简单,经常熬夜让那些夜猫子的身体付出了代价。For instance, the study suggested that a gene that is involved in body weight also affects whether someone is at their best in the morning or at night.举例来说,该研究表明,与体重有关的一个基因会影响人们的最佳状态是在早上还是夜晚。Researcher David Hinds said: #39;We like to think of our preferences and behaviour as core to who we are and it#39;s interesting to see how our biology influences these things, like whether you are a morning person or a night owl.研究人员大卫·海因兹说:“我们喜欢把我们的偏好和行为当作‘我们是谁’这个问题的核心。研究生理特质如何影响人早起或晚睡等行为偏好其实挺有趣的。”#39;With large genetic databases available for study, we can uncover the genetics behind a variety of conditions and diseases and hopefully reach a better understanding of how we differ from one another.#39;大卫还说:“现如今,可供研究的基因库数据庞大,我们可以发现各种病症背后的遗传学原理,有望对个体特殊性有更深的理解。”But night owls needn#39;t despair because a previous study found them to be brainier than those who leap out of bed when it is still dark.但“夜猫子”们也不必沮丧。之前的一项研究表明,晚睡的人比那些天还没亮就起床的人更聪明。To be precise, the brainiest go to bed at 29 minutes past midnight - while least clever turn off the bedroom light at 11.41pm, the British study found.确切地说,根据一项英国研究,最聪明的人在零点29分时睡觉,而智商最低的那些人在晚上11点41分关灯上床。It is thought the division into larks and owls has its roots deep in evolution, with early risers in the Stone Age taking the initiative in food gathering, while late bidders stood guard late into the night.人们认为,“夜猫子”和“早起鸟”这种分类可以从人类进化上找到深层原因。在石器时代,早起的人带头采集食物,晚睡的人则在夜晚守夜。 /201602/425690

India may have a selfie-loving prime minister, Narendra Modi, but Indians in general seem to be bad at selfie safety. Of at least 27 ;selfie related; deaths around the world last year, about half occurred in India, reports show.印度也许有个最热爱自拍的首相--纳伦德拉·莫迪,但是总体看来,印度人在自拍安全方面做得很差。一篇报道显示,在去年全世界27例与自拍相关的死亡事件当中,其中有一半发生在印度。In 2015, Indians taking selfies died while posing in front of an oncoming train, in a boat that tipped over at a picnic, and on the slippery edge of a scenic river canal. Also, in September, a Japanese tourist trying to take a selfie fell down steps at the Taj Mahal, suffering fatal head injuries.2015年,印度的自拍致死有的是因为在呼啸而来的火车面前摆姿势,有的是因为在船上野餐时净顾着自拍结果船翻了,还有则是因为在湿滑的河岸旁行走。去年九月,一位日本游客在自拍的时候从泰姬陵的台阶上摔了下来,造成了致命的头部伤害。A Mumbai police spokesman, Dhananjay Kulkarni, told the B that police would be asking city officials to take steps to reduce the risk of selfies at popular tourist spots such as the city#39;s famous Marine Drive, including deploying life guards and posting warning signs. Police would also be giving warnings, authorities said.孟买警方发言人告诉B,警方将要求城市官员采取措施,来降低包括孟买的海滨大道在内的著名景点的自拍风险。相关措施包括部署救生员和张贴警示标志。此外,当局表示,警方也会给出警示。Selfie-related deaths have continued in 2016 as well, with two people dying near the Bandra in Mumbai by drowning. Mumbai police then identified 16 #39;no-selfie zones#39; in the city to combat the menace.2016年,自拍死亡事件还在继续,有两个人在孟买的班德拉附近溺水而亡。为此,孟买警方在市区确认了16个;不许自拍区域;,以应对这种威胁。 /201601/423649

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