明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月23日 10:40:06
Science and Technology Avian malaria and climate change Bite the birds科技 禽虐与气候变化 鸟类受害Malaria among birds is becoming more prevalent鸟类中的疟疾感染越来越多MOSQUITOES, which carry malaria parasites, like the warm and wet conditions that are expected to become more common with climate change.携带疟原虫的蚊子喜欢温暖潮湿的环境,由于气候变化的影响这种环境可能会越来越普遍。This has led many to reason that malarial infections will increase.因此很多人推论,疟疾感染将会增加。Yet studies run into the unreliability of modelling future climatic effects and sometimes ignore changes in land use and health care.但是很多研究遇到了未来气候效应模型不可靠的问题,而且有时忽视了土地使用和健康保健方面的变化。However, a new analysis of the sp of avian malaria shows that for the birds, at least, there is a real worry.然而,一项新的对禽虐传播的分析显示,至少对于鸟类而言,真正令人担忧的状况已经出现。Laszlo Garamszegi, of the Do?ana Biological Station in Spain, studied patterns of malarial infections in birds to avoid confounding human factors in determining the epidemiology of a closely related parasite.在对一种有密切关系的寄生虫进行流行病学鉴定时,为避免混入人为因素,西班牙多尼亚纳生物站的喇撒?噶母赛棘研究了在鸟类中疟疾感染的模式。He looked at 43 previous studies that had carefully screened 3,000 bird species for malaria in different locations over the past 70 years.他察看了以前的43份研究。这些研究仔细鉴别了过去70年来在不同地区的3000中鸟类感染疟疾的情况。He found that an increase in global temperatures of 1°C was accompanied by a two-to threefold increase in the average prevalence of malaria in birds.他发现,全球气温每增加1°C,鸟类平均疟疾患病率随之增加两到三倍。The most dramatic increases took place during the past 20 years.最急剧地增加是发生在过去的20年间。Dr Garamszegis work, published in Global Change Biology, found that the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) showed a malaria prevalence that was less than 10% before 1990 when worldwide temperatures were cooler, but in recent years nearly 30% were infected.噶母赛棘士的论文发表在《全球变化生物学》杂志上,他发现,家雀(Passer domesticus)的疟疾患病率在1990年以前不到10%,那时全球气候比较凉爽,但是在最近的一些年里几乎30%被感染。The great tit (Parus major) presented a similarly worrying increase, with less than 3% infected with malaria before 1995 but closer to 15% in recent studies.大山雀(Parus major)的患病率有类似令人担忧的增加,1995年之前不到3%,而最近接近15%。The blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), a migrant bird common in Europe that breeds in gardens, once had virtually no avian malaria but a study in 1999 showed nearly 4% had the disease.黑头莺在欧洲一种常见的候鸟,它们生活在很多公园里,实际上它们曾经并没有禽虐感染,但是1999年的一项研究显示,几乎4%的黑头莺感染了这种疾病。The effects of warming on avian malaria were not universal.气候变暖对禽虐的影响并不普遍。Birds in Asia, North America and South America suffered much less change in their levels of infection during warm years than did birds dwelling in Africa and Europe.亚洲、北美和南美的鸟类,在气候变暖的若干年里,其感染率的变化较小,而生活在非洲和欧洲的鸟类则受影响较大。Such trends may not have any relevance to the malaria parasites that infect humans.这种趋势与感染人类的疟原虫可能没有任何关系。But avian malaria is aly ravaging the native birds of Hawaii and it is now wreaking havoc in New Zealand, says Dr Garamszegi.但是禽虐已经毁掉了夏威夷的本地鸟类,它目前在新西兰正造成着巨大的破坏,噶母赛棘士说。Human beings may be able to mitigate the sp of malaria, but birds will need the help of conservationists if some species are to survive.人类也许已经使疟疾的传播减缓,但是如果某些鸟类要幸存下来,就需要环境保护主义者们的帮助。 /201212/216130

Research shows that whether a person is an optimist or a pessimist is related to their quality of life, including their physical health. The subjects involved first took personality tests in the 1960′s and then thirty years later they completed a follow-up self-assessment of their health status. Researchers found that not only did the optimists from the 1960′s report better physical and mental functioning thirty years later, but that optimists also lived longer on average than pessimists.研究表明,不管一个人是乐观还是悲观,都和他的生活质量息息相关,包括身体健康。这个主题首次在二十世纪六十年代提出并做了人格测试,三十年后他们后续完成了健康状况的自我评价。研究人员发现60年代的乐观主义者不仅身心比30年后的人更健康,而且乐观主义者比悲观主义者更长寿。It’s hardly clear that there is a causal relationship between optimism and health; it could be that they are related to the same underlying gene complex or set of mechanisms. Still, it sure is tempting to surmise that it’s partly a positive attitude that keeps people alive for so long. It may actually be possible that a lot of what my parents have been telling me for years is true. If you think positively, good things may happen to you. If you think negatively, then you may doom yourself.很难理清乐观与健康之间的因果关系,也许是因为它们与相同的潜在基因或是一套机制有关。不过,可以肯定的是,一定程度上的积极心态能让人长寿。实际上可能多年来我父母告诉我的许多事情都是真的。如果你积极地看待这个世界,好的事情就可能发生在你身上。如果你总是消极地看待一切,那样只会让你自己更郁闷。 /201303/229389


  Books and Arts; Book Review;The life of Lillian Hellman;Profile in courage;文艺;书评;丽莲·海尔曼的生活;勇气的轮廓;Lillian Hellman, a popular playwright and bestselling author, was a minor player in American intellectual circles. So why is she still such a divisive figure?丽莲·海尔曼,一个有名的剧作家和畅销书作者,曾今是美国知识分子圈中的一个小角色。但是为什么时至今日,她还是一个如此备受争议的人物?A Difficult Woman: The Challenging Life and Times of Lillian Hellman. By Alice Kessler-Harris.《一个难对付的女人:莉莲·赫尔曼充满挑战的一生和她的时代》,阿丽丝·凯斯勒·哈里斯著。Lillian Hellman knew how to tell a good story, and she liked to spin her own. So she destroyed old letters, suppressed records and hushed friends. She replaced hard documentation with soulful reminiscences of a Jewish childhood in New Orleans, of coming of age during the Depression and of defending her leftist ideals amid the hysteria of the cold war. Flinty yet glamorous, she was blacklisted in the 1950s because she would not confess to a crime of disloyalty she felt she never committed. In memoirs and anecdotes, Hellman presented herself as she wished to be remembered—the courageous and upright heroine of her own play—and tried to destroy or quash everything else.丽莲·海尔曼知道怎样才能叙述出一个好的故事,并且她喜欢编写关于自己的故事。正因为这样,她废弃了旧的书信,禁止写记录性的文件,缄默朋友。用充满感情的回忆录,取代了生硬刻板的文件。一个犹太人,在新奥尔良度过了自己的童年时光,成年时期经历了大萧条,并且在歇斯底里的冷战时期捍卫她的左翼思想。在二十世纪五十年代,她被列入黑名单,原因是她不愿意承认自己犯了不忠罪,她觉得自己从来没有犯过。虽然顽固了点,可是却很绚烂。在回忆录与轶事里,海尔曼这样呈现自己——一个有勇气且正直的女英雄,并且试图摧毁或是捣碎一切。Hellman is an irresistible subject, but time has not been good to her reputation. Her effort to control her legacy appears to have backfired. Once celebrated for her taut writing and devotion to social justice, her image since her death in 1984, aged 79, has curdled into something villainous. Her plays are still performed—particularly “The Little Foxes”, which secured her fame in 1939—but they are often dismissed as moralising melodramas. Her name now tends to invite vitriol about her being a Stalinist and a liar, a woman who preached economic equality while swaddled in mink. She was a hypocritical “bitch with balls”, in the words of Elia Kazan, a film director, who seethed at Hellmans self-righteous take on the McCarthy era.海尔曼是一个让人无法抗拒的主题,可是时间对她的名誉而言却并不是一件好事。她企图控制自己的遗产,没料却事与愿违。曾今人们赞美她那简洁紧凑的著作,还有为社会正义所做出的努力。但是她的形象,在1984年79岁的她去世后,变质成腐化堕落。人们仍然在表演她的剧本,尤其是1939年为她赢得名声的《小狐狸》。但是更多的时候,剧本被认为是具有说教性质的情景剧,因此不予考虑。一提起她的名字,就会引来社会对她的尖酸刻薄的评价。一个斯大林主义者,撒谎精,一个鼓吹经济平等却穿着貂皮大衣的女流之辈。用美国导演伊利亚卡赞的话说,她是一个虚伪的“长有男性睾丸的婊子”。导演伊利亚卡赞及其讨厌海尔曼在麦卡锡时代的自以为是。This is the backdrop of “A Difficult Woman”. Alice Kessler-Harris, an American historian at Columbia University, begins her thoughtful book assuring ers that “it would be folly to try to capture the ‘real Lillian, whoever that is”. Hellman is too slippery a subject and too unco-operative a source for that. Rather, this biography works to answer the question of why Hellman remains such a divisive figure, “a lightning rod for the anger, fear and passion” that divided Americans during an especially fraught ideological time.这是令人深思的书籍《一个难对付的女人》的创作背景。艾丽斯·凯斯勒·哈里斯,美国哥伦比亚大学历史学家,如此开头本书向人们保,“企图捕捉真实的丽莲是一件愚蠢的事,不管是谁”。原因是海尔曼是如此的狡猾,如此的不可合作。准确点说,这本传记主要是来回答海尔曼为什么是这样一位富有争议的人物,“是愤怒,恐惧与的避雷针”,在各种意识形态混杂的时代,让美国人四分五散。Ambitious, acerbic and direct to the point of rudeness, Hellman was a woman of voracious appetites, the kind of “tough broad” who “can take the tops off bottles with her teeth”, according to a 1941 New Yorker profile. She knew she wasnt a beauty (her first boyfriend said she looked like “a prow head on a whaling ship”), but she bristled with a sexual charisma designed to distract husbands from their wives. Lonely and insecure about her desirability, she found affirmation in affairs and friendships with men.野心勃勃,尖刻,并直接达到粗鲁的程度。海尔曼是个贪吃的女人,据1941年杂志纽约形象描述,她粗鲁的可以“用牙齿扯下瓶塞”。她知道自己不是一个美人(她的第一任男友说她长得像是“捕鲸船的船头”),但是她性感十足,专门勾引别人的老公。孤独,还有对性感的不安全感,使得她在艳遇和与男人的友谊中寻求肯定。The most significant of these was with Dashiell Hammett, a famous and flamboyantly alcoholic writer of detective novels, with whom she enjoyed an unconventional romance for 30 years until he died in 1961. Hellman always credited him with teaching her how to write, showing her how to craft distinctive characters with just a few lines of raffish dialogue. In turn Hellman bailed Hammett out of the occasional fix, and tended to his reputation and estate for the rest of her life.与她交往的最有名的当属达希尔·哈米特。达希尔·哈米特,侦探小说家,著名,有派头,酗酒。直到1961年达希尔·哈米特死亡,海尔曼跟他经历了30年的不同寻常的浪漫。海尔曼经常说他的好话,比如他教她如何写作,如何用几行简短的低级趣味的对白塑造出与众不同的人物形象。对应地,海尔曼保释达希尔·哈米特于偶尔的贿赂,并用其余生悉心照料他的名誉和财产。Vehemently anti-fascist, Hellman fought for civil rights and civil liberties, always believing a better future was within reach. She became a labour organiser during the Depression, and travelled to Spain to witness the horrors of its civil war. She flirted with communism in the 1930s, seeing the party as an essential check on fascism in Europe. Problematically, she joined the party after the worst of Moscows purges and show trials, and even signed a letter declaring her faith in the guilt of the defendants. But her membership was brief, and she later expressed regret for not having understood just how blood-soaked Stalin was.海尔曼是激进的反法西斯主义者,为了人权和自由而战,并且坚信美好的未来就在手边。在大萧条时期,她成为工会的组织者,并且亲赴西班牙,见内战的恐怖。在十九世纪三十年代,她与共产主义接触,亲眼目睹了,在欧洲,主要的被抓捕对象是共产党。给她真正惹麻烦的,是在糟糕的莫斯科大清洗后,她加入了共产党,并且出庭,甚至签署一封信,宣称自己对被告的过失有信心。Amid growing fears about the Soviet menace in the 1950s, Hellman still loudly supported “peaceful coexistence” rather than aggressive containment. Called before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in 1952, she elegantly declared that it was “indecent and dishonourable” to name names in order to save herself, particularly when she did not feel she had done anything wrong. Americas repression of communism, she argued, was more insidious than the threat of it. Despite decades of involvement in progressive politics and her public criticism of Stalins regime, Hellman is still regarded as an “unrepentant Stalinist”.在1950年代,人们在对苏联的威胁战战兢兢之际,海尔曼依旧高调持“和平共处”而不是强制遏制。1952年,在被非美活动调查委员会传唤之前,为了保全自己,她高雅地宣称公开点名是“不得体且不被尊重”的。看点是,她还并不觉得自己做错了什么。针对美国对共产党的镇压,她反驳道,比起共产党带来的威胁,这更阴险。尽管她参与了几十年的政治改革,并且公开批评斯大林政权,海尔曼还是被标榜为“顽固不化的斯大林主义者”。Ms Kessler-Harris largely defends Hellman against her harshest critics by placing her and her choices—such as her defence of communism and her refusal to embrace feminism—in the context of her times. Hellmans politics were often naive, but she was hardly alone. She had the “sense of justice of a very small child”, according to a friend, and she conveyed this moral certainty in her plays. But she was a bit player in intellectual circles, a celebrity whose outspokenness earned her disproportionate attention. So why has Hellman become a symbol for all that went wrong in the ideological battles of the 20th century? Ms Kessler-Harris argues that it may have something to do with the fact that she was a brassy, unattractive and sexually voracious woman who reaped commercial success from “middlebrow” work.凯斯勒·哈里斯女士替海尔曼讲话,反对那些针对她的苛刻的批评。主要是通过把海尔曼放在她所处的时代来看待她这个人和她的决定。诸如,防卫共产主义,拒绝拥抱女权主义。海尔曼的政治活动通常是天真幼稚的,但是却都不是她一个人的行为。根据她一个朋友的说法,她有一种“一个非常小的小孩子的正义感”,这在她的剧本中有所体现。在知识分子层中,她可以说算是跑龙套的,可是她的坦率直言,赚足了人们的眼球。在二十世纪意识形态竞争焦灼的年代,到底是什么让海尔曼成了一个标志?凯斯勒·哈里斯女士认为,这来源于这样一个事实,她脸皮厚,长的不好看,性贪婪,但是却能从极普通的工作中攫取大量的商业财富。Hellman hardly helped matters by claiming her own moral superiority. In her 1976 memoir, “Scoundrel Time”, she lambasts fellow leftists for not speaking up when innocent Americans were being jailed or ruined by the HUAC witch hunt. Her anger was not directed at the government, but at “the people of my world”, the intellectuals who did nothing to defend Americas civil liberties. By placing herself on this righteous pedestal, touting her own bravery in a time of fear, she left herself open to criticism, particularly for her blindness to Stalins sins. She was also more vulnerable to claims that she twisted the facts to promote her story of personal courage.海尔曼想通过声称自己的道德优越感来帮助解决事情,可事情却正好相反。1976年的回忆录《邪恶的日子》,HUAC监禁或迫害无辜的美国人民,左翼分子们没有大声抗议,海尔曼炮轰同行的行为。她的愤怒并不是指向美国政府,而是“我的王国里的人们”,那些知识分子,对于保卫人民的自由,置若罔闻。她把自己当做正义的化身,在人们充满恐惧心理的年代,兜售自己的勇敢。海尔曼将自己置于大众批评的箭靶之下,尤其是她对斯大林罪行的一无所知。同时她也很容易让人们攻击她利用扭曲事实来推广自己很有勇气。But the final nail in the coffin of Hellmans reputation was hammered in 1980, when she decided to go after Mary McCarthy, a novelist and literary critic, for defaming her in a late-night TV interview. Younger, more attractive and intellectually fierce, McCarthy accused Hellman of being a bad and dishonest writer; “every word she writes is a lie, including ‘and and ‘the.” Hellman sued. The lawsuit lasted for the rest of her life. After years of defending civil liberties and criticising rapacious wealth-seeking, Hellman ended her days seeming like a greedy and vengeful censor.但是,给海尔曼的名声带来致命一击的,是1980年她与玛丽麦卡锡的官司。玛丽麦卡锡,小说家和文学批评家,在一档晚间电视访谈中说了海尔曼的坏话。麦卡锡,更年轻,更有吸引力,更智慧,谴责海尔曼是一个坏人,一个不诚实的作家:“她写的每一个词,包括‘and和‘the都是谎言。”海尔曼起诉她。这场官司一直持续到海尔曼生命的最后。多年以来,她保卫人民自由,谴责贪婪的追求财富的行为,不料在生命结束之际,看起来却像是个贪婪的,报复心重的审查员。This is a shame. Hellman may not have been the hero of her reminiscences, but she spent a lifetime believing it was the duty of engaged citizens to fight racism, alleviate poverty and protect civil liberties. She was a role model to feminists in the 1970s, but she despaired that they talked too much about bras and too little about economic opportunity and human rights. She made some foolish choices, but Lillian Hellman was often on the right side of history. Too bad so many of her good ideas have been tossed out with the bad ones.这真是一件令人遗憾的事。海尔曼或许不是她回忆录中的英雄,可是她终生坚信,反对种族歧视,缓解贫困,并且保护人民的自由是参与社会的人民应有的义务。她是1970年代女权运动的行为榜样,但是她们谈论的更多的主题是内衣,经济机会和人权的实在太少,这很令海尔曼失望。虽然她做过一些愚蠢的决定,但是丽莲海尔曼总是站在历史的正确的一边。真不幸,她的很多好的观点随着不好的,一同被丢弃。 /201212/213118。

  Technology Catalog技术前沿Towering Beauty 高耸的美丽Elegant way to convey electrical cables across the countryside may be coming soon to a field near you 输电新法可能很快推出A PYLON is supposed to be a beautiful thing. In ancient Egypt, pairs of tapering stone towers called pylons marked the entrances of temples. Christian architects borrowed the idea for the twin towers above the fa?ades of many Gothic cathedrals. 高塔应属美之物,在古埃及,成对下粗上细的塔门标出庙宇的入口,基督教建筑师也借用哥特教堂前面竖上双塔的想法。Whoever thought of appropriating the word for the ugly metal-lattice structures that carry high-tension power lines over the countryside was therefore guilty of both a public-relations triumph and an act of etymological vandalism. 但谁能想到一个确切的词,来描述乡村上面那些传送高压电的丑陋高架建筑,它们总是纠结于公共关系的胜利和原始环境的破坏。The latter, however, may soon be redeemed. The latest generation of electricity pylons are, in the eyes of some, at least, things of beauty in their own right.不过,补救之法很快推出,看来,最新一代的电塔至少也能算得上个尤物吧。The pylons in question have been designed by engineers at TenneT, the firm that runs the Netherlands national electricity grid, in collaboration with KEMA, a Dutch research company. Instead of a single lattice tower, the cables are supported by two elegant steel poles up to 65 metres high. There are no arms. The six cables that pass from one pylon to another are each borne by two insulators attached to the poles. 谈论的电塔由Tennel T的工程师设计,该公司同荷兰一家研究公司KEMA合作运营荷兰国家电网,两根细长的钢柱撑着电碳,高65米,没有杆,也不是一根架子塔。两个高塔之间通着6根电缆,每根有两个附在高塔上的绝缘体。The resulting arrangement, though hardly invisible, is reasonably elegant. 这样安排几乎看不到什么,相对体面些。As much to the point, though, it has technological advantages. 怎么说,这种电塔也具有技术上的优势,Though no harm has been proven from them, conventional pylon cables, which transmit a three-phase alternating current, generate a strong electric field and a continuous buzz of low-frequency radio waves which some people who live near them fear might be detrimental to their health.传统电塔传输三段交流电,会产生强烈的磁场和低频电波连续不断的嗡嗡声,附近居民担心这可能会对身体不好,而新式电塔倒还没有这种事儿。TenneTs pylons should help allay that fear. TenneT的电塔应会减轻他们的疑虑。Carrying all the cables in a “stack” between the poles, rather than hanging them separately on outward-facing arms, allows them to be arranged in a way that causes the individual fields generated by each cable to cancel each other, weakening the overall field around the pylons. 电塔之间的电缆都在一块,而不是在向外伸出的杆上分开挂着,每根电缆产生单独磁场,相互干扰,降低了电塔周围的总磁场。The result is far less low-frequency radiation. 新式电塔大大减少低频辐射。The combination of being less of an eyesore and producing less electrical smog should, TenneT hopes, soften objections to the construction of new overhead power lines.TenneT希望不碍眼和低辐射能减少人们对修建新电塔的异议。That is important for two reasons. 主要因为两点,One, the alternative—burying high-tension lines—is expensive and largely futile. 首先,掩埋高压线这一替换既贵又不实用。The cost of putting a cable underground is between four and ten times as much as that of carrying it on a pylon.把电缆埋在地底的花费是架电塔的四到十倍。On top of that, the field generated by an alternating current interacts with the ground more strongly than it does with the air. 除此之外,在地下交流电相互影响产生的磁场比在空中强烈很多。This creates losses 40 times higher in a buried cable than in an aerial one. Unless the long-distance-transmission system were converted to direct current, burial of transmission lines is not a serious option. 地底铺线比高空架线成本高了40倍。除非长距输电系统转换成直流电,地下输电才不至于是个笑话。The second reason TenneTs pylons may be important is that despite these problems a lot of new long-distance-transmission lines are going to have to be constructed, soon. Wind power from the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean will require that.其次,不管这些,TenneT的电塔很重要是因为很快要修建不少新的长距输电线路,北海和大西洋的风力将会需要。So, more speculatively, will the idea of generating solar power in north Africa and transmitting it to Europe.所以理论上北非太阳能发的电传输到欧洲的想法越来越有可能。In the Netherlands alone, TenneT says, more than 400km of new lines are needed. TenneT表示,单是荷兰就需要400多千米的新电缆。In Germany, the state-owned energy agency, DENA, reckons that figure is more than 3,500km. 德国国家能源部DENA估计得需3,500多千米。At the most recent meeting of the European Council, on February 4th, the leaders of the European Unions member states acknowledged that Europe needs a completely new power grid, a project they reckon will cost about 200 billion. 2月4日举办最新的欧洲议会上,欧盟成员国领导人承认欧洲需要全新电网,估计工程花费大约2000万欧元。The overhead power problem is thus going to have to be solved one way or another.头顶电力难题因此会用这种或其他办法解决。In truth, of course, no pylon is ever going to be a more attractive feature of the countryside than no pylon. But if pylons have to be built—which they do—then something elegant and efficient is the least bad way of doing it.当然,在乡村最美的风景是没有电塔,但要是必须得有呢,整得好看点效率点,才不会显得太糟吧。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231507

  Frozen Smoke固体烟Male:Whats as light as smoke but strong as a brick?什么东西既可以跟烟一样轻,又可以跟砖块一样重?Female:Im gonna take a while guess and say... aerogel?让我想会儿……气凝胶?Male:Sorry,yaoyao,the answer is... Wait a second! Did you say aerogel? How did you know?瑶瑶,不好意思,是……等等!你说的是气凝胶吗?你是怎么知道的?F:Yeap! Did you know that aerogel is the lightest solid on earth?是的!你知道气凝胶是地球上最轻的固体吗?M:I was going to tell you that.我刚刚正要告诉你呢!F:Another cool thing is that it starts out as a kind of chemical Jello. Then the gel is dried in a powerful pressure cooker and emerges as a very lightweight, dry, sponge-like material that looks like frozen smoke.了不起的是,气凝胶开始是作为一种化学凝胶物的。然后胶体在压力很强的锅里变干,成为了一种重量很轻、很干燥、类似海绵状,看起来像固体烟雾的物体。M:OK! Did you know that aerogel is ninety-nine-point-eight percent air?是的!那你知道气凝胶中99.8%都是空气吗?F:Sure.That was in your notes.And its incredibly light-one thousand times less dense than glass. But its also really strong and an excellent insulator.知道啊!你的笔记中有的!气凝胶相当的轻,轻到密度只有玻璃的千分之一。但它也很结实,是几号的绝缘体。M:Is there anything you dont know about aerogel? For instance,scientists are using it to try to capture dust particles from the tail of a comet. When the particlesslam into an aerogelpanel aboard a space probe, theyll bury themselves inside and leave visible trails. Since aerogel is mostly air, it wont damage the particles.关于气凝胶,你还有什么不知道的吗?比如说,科学家正在试图用它捕捉彗星经过的微尘。当(微尘)颗粒猛烈撞击到航空探测器上的气凝胶板时,它们将会自然,从而留下可见的痕迹。因为气凝胶差不多等同于空气,并不会破坏(微尘)颗粒。F:Actually, I know that too.其实这个我也知道! /201208/197050


  If you’ve ever driven in LA, you know that people don’t cooperate terribly well. Traffic jams, folks cutting folks off, people shouting at you out their windows . . . it’s a real headache. We’d all do a lot better–at least, we’d all move through congestion a lot faster–if we were ants.如果你在洛杉矶开过车,你就会知道那里路上人们配合得不是很好,致使交通阻塞,水泄不通,人们透过车窗口大嚷大叫,真是让人头痛!如果我们能效仿蚂蚁,那么,至少拥堵的交通移动地可以更快些!Why ants, you ask? That’s what Ian Couzin of Princeton University wanted to know. You may have seen films of huge numbers of South American Army Ants zooming across the grass on raids and coming back with all sorts of goodies to eat. So why don’t they crash into each other and suffer ant-gridlock the way humans do? One answer: Couzin found is that army ants follow a simple procedure: everybody coming home has the right-of-way.你可能会问:为什么是蚂蚁呢?普林斯顿大学的Ian Couzin也曾经疑惑过。你可能曾看过电影里成群结队的南美洲军蚁 “行军”穿过草丛,而后满载而归。那么,为什么他们不会撞上对方,像人类一样,交通阻塞呢?Couzin 发现有个原因能解释:军蚁行进的方式很简单,所有蚂蚁回家都有“优先权”。Even a simple rule like that: if you going out, same-phrase side; if you coming home, don’t same-phrase side; works terrifically. It results in a stream of home-going ants passing unobstructed through the center of a crowd of out-going ants. Among other things, this means raiding parties can go any direction from the anthill, because nobody has to remember some complicated rule about turning left or turning right. Also, the guys bringing home the goodies will always be protected on both sides by out-going ants. Simple!很简单的守则:出门就走同向边;回家就走逆向边,屡试不爽。这样一来,回家的一群蚂蚁会畅通无阻地穿过成群结队的出门蚂蚁群。这样,蚁冢中的蚂蚁群可以自由行进,因为无须忌讳向左或向右的复杂规则。两侧要出门的蚂蚁也会保护背着东西回家的蚂蚁群。再简单不过了!So, would this work in LA? Probably not. Thousands of human beings just can’t be made to follow a behavioral rule like that. Somebody would try to get a little bit ahead, then somebody else would see that and get angry, and pretty soon, you’re back to LA traffic. For better or worse, people just don’t think like ants.那么,洛杉矶能借鉴吗?也许不行,成千上万的人是不可能遵守蚂蚁群的规则的。有些人想方设法在更前面,其他人看到了就会生气,不一会儿,又会回到洛杉矶交通的状态。不管怎样,人们是无法像蚂蚁般思考的。 /201303/231708

  With large teeth for mashing plants and sharper teeth for eating insects and worms, we can even tell that fruitadens was an omnivore.果齿龙拥有可以捣碎植物的大牙齿和吃昆虫、蠕虫的锋利的牙齿,我们甚至可以说它是杂食动物。But the final piece of the puzzle in recreating this animal is its colour. And thats something we cant be sure about.但是重建它最后的难题是这种动物的颜色。这一点我是无法确定的。If you push things too far, you go with poker dots, and purple and pink, your audience simply wont believe it.如果你把事情做过头了,你加上了点,是紫色和粉色的,那么你的观众根本不会相信。But if you draw upon the examples of our living animals, we can actually gain a lot just by looking at crocodile skin, the colouration in maybe some lizards and fish even, and it will remain believable.但是如果你利用现实生活中的动物,我们实际上只需要看鳄鱼皮,或者一些蜥蜴的着色,甚至是鱼的身体颜色就可以知道很多种颜色,而这些还是可信的。Like everything in the exhibition, the finished work will have to be approved by Luis.就像展会上的一切,快完工的时候必须由路易斯核准。So one thing we need to keep in mind is that although we want to have some variation in pattern or in colour, they obviously all need to look the same species.所以有一件事我们需要谨记,尽管我们希望在模型或者颜色上有些变化,但是显然它们应该看上去是一种物种。Youre gonna give me some freedom to experiment on some colours, maybe in the face or the throat.你应该给我试着更换一些颜色的权利,也许在脸上或者在喉咙的部位。I still think that overall we want to stick to standard gray, green, brown.我还是认为,总体上我们想坚持用灰色、绿色和棕色。I think that will be nice to subtle that something can be viewed when you are looking at it from, you know, six feet away.你知道的,当你在六米以外的地方观看,我觉得人们看到那些微妙的东西会感到高兴。Although the colour of fruitadens is unknown, new scientific breakthroughs are allowing paleontologists to see some dinosaurs in a way thats never been possible before.尽管果齿龙的颜色未知,新的科学突破让古生物学家用另外一种方式看到以往不可能看到的恐龙。We are still learning more about dinosaurs, as increasing numbers of specimens come to light, but also as the techniques that we used to analyses them become more and more sophisticated.我还在学习更多的有关恐龙的知识,随着越来越多的标本的出现,我们用来分析它们的技术越来越复杂。And Im off to meet somebody now who has made great discoveries in one particular aspect of dinosaur science that many people thought would remain hidden forever.我们要去配合在研究恐龙某一方面有突出发现的人,而很多人认为那些发现可能永远不会真相大白。OK. So this is what we are now going to look at, hold this, put this in. it will take a minute or two to fire up the vacuum.好了,这就是我们现在在看的,拿好,把它放这儿。只需要一两分钟就能启动真空了。Pro. Mike Benton recently came across the remains of a dinosaur that was so exquisitely well preserved that feathers as well as bones had fossilized.迈克·本顿教授最近遇到保存极度完好的恐龙的遗骸,还有羽毛和骨骼化石。Incredibly, those feathers can tell us the colour of a dinosaur that lived 125 million years ago.令人难以置信的是,依据这些羽毛的颜色,我们可以得知以只恐龙活在1.25亿年前。201302/224433。


  Six days a week, Robert Hedron and a fleet of other drivers do the rounds of Berlins supermarkets, picking up whats left over; that’s all brought back to a central sorting office and the good stuffs kept.一周有六天,Robert Hedron以及其他一行驾驶员在柏林各大超市附近驾车而行,捡起人们扔下的弃物,然后全部送至分选中心,留下仍然有价值的物品。;There are loads of discounters they cannot sell these any more, just because one bad doesnt mean they are all bad.; And each month, almost 700,000 kgs of groceries are distributed to social service facilities across the city for those in need.有许多折扣商店根本卖不掉这些产品,可是有时只是一个商品有问题,其他并没有质量问题。实际上,每个月大约有70万公斤这种商品配送至全国各个社会务中心,以供给有需要的人们。Salad, biscuits, sausages, b, a few vegetables, this woman shows me what shes picked up. ;This definitely helps as my pension is not big, ; she says.沙拉、饼干、香肠、面包、种类不少的蔬菜,这名妇女给我看看了她拾捡的各种商品,她说,“因为我的抚恤金可不高,这些东西肯定会派上用场。”Its not just pensionless and people on social security who come here. Though this countrys unemployment rate fell to a record low for the month, according to the national poverty conference which published its annual report the day we visited the center, 1 in 4 Germans live in the low wage sector, the so-called working poor.并不只是那些靠领抚恤金和社会救助而生存的人才会来这儿, 我们参观了这个社会务中心。同一天,国家贫困大会发布本年度报告,尽管德国的失业率本月已降至历史最低,1/4的德国人为低工资者,即“穷忙族”。Like Thomas Weers who says he earns less in a full time job than he would on benefits.拿Thomas Weers来说,他说自己靠全职挣得钱还不如领的抚恤金高。;Everyone says isnt it great, you just have 2, 2.5 million jobless. But if you are only getting paid 7 euros an hour, it doesnt add up.;“每个人都说,难道还不够伟大吗?失业人数只有2百万或2.5百万。但是如果一小时,你只能挣7欧元,根本不能解决问题。”Germany prides itself on its social welfare system which is one of the most generous in Europe, which is why you wont find a people here, for example, who wont be able to feed their families this Christmas. But as the countrys demographic changes, as the population ages, if Europe fails to become more competitive, then this social welfare model may become one of the things in the past.根本不能解决问题。”德国一直骄傲于自己的社会福利系统,在欧洲它可是数一数二的慷慨大方,这也是为什么你在德国找不到哪怕一个人,比如,在圣诞节吃不饱、穿不暖。但是,随着如人口年龄等德国人口结构的变化,如果欧洲经济不能变得更有竞争力,那么这种社会模型将成为历史。Liliana Pfundt tells me she wishes Germany has kept the Deutch Mark.Liliana Pfundt告诉我,她希望德国仍然保留德国马克。We are taxed to high heaven now. That money they sent to Greece they should keep to build Germany up.现在,我们的税太高了。应该用那些援助希腊的钱来建设德国。She feels her 40 years’ hard work arent reflected in the pensions she receives. But here at Christmas, she is happy that at least she doesnt have to go without.她认为自己40年的努力工作应该拿到更多的退休金。不过,圣诞节这会,她是快乐的,至少并没有一无所有。201301/221776

  But its not completely finished. Paul and his team need Luis advice on a couple of issues.但是这还没有完全结束。保罗和他的团队需要路易斯在几个问题上的建议。There are several unknowns. And a complete tail has never been found.有些事是未知的。还有一条完整的尾巴没有找到。So on the older drawings that we have, theres maybe 53 tailbones but the newer thinking is that there is close to 43. Paleontology, most of it is soft science.在我们有的那些旧图上,有53个尾巴骨头,但是新的想法是只有43个左右的骨头。古生物学,大部分是软科学。So these theories change with new evidence that is found. 也就是说,随着新的据发现,这些理论会随着改变。One of the big questions about T-rex is what its surprisingly short arms were used for.有关Trex的一个重要问题是他那超级短的手臂是干嘛用的。They might have been used to hold on to prey or to push the body up from a sitting position. No one knows.它们可能会短手臂抓住猎物或者撑身体改变坐姿。没有人知道。And thats partly because each arm is anchored to the body by the shoulder blade or scapular.部分原因是每一个手臂固定在身体的肩胛骨或者肩胛那儿。And there is no easy way of telling exactly where that set.想要知道手臂的确切位置不是一件容易的事。With the scapular Ive seen, theyve gone up closer to the vertebra in the back bone.我看到的肩胛,向上接近脊柱上的脊椎部位。Ive also seen where they were lowered almost to where belly is.我还能看见向下接近腹部。There is a part of the front end of the scapular, the coccyx, and some people think they go together this much and some people think they go together this much.有一部分肩胛,尾椎的前端,有人认为手臂是和前者连在一起,有人认为是和后者连在一起。But that all has to do with how they, how everything hangs in the front end of this, and also how the hands were used. 但是这些都与它们,还有其他所有东西是如何连在一起的有关系,以及怎么用手。Those arms were just about the same size as we human arm. 这些手臂的大小和人类的接近。The difficulty in placing the scapular on Tomas is compounded by the fact that the bones were distorted over the millions of years that they spent buried underground.把肩胛安置在Tomas上,有一定的难度,并且由于骨头被埋在地下数百万年,早已变形,想要还原肩胛骨就更难了。They were flattened. And they dont really have the curvature that they must have had when the animal was alive before.它们被夷为平地。当恐龙还活着的时候,它的身体有些地方并不一定是弯曲的。It is really difficult to fit them on the sides of the ribcage. I guess thats the nature of the beast.恐龙两边胸腔的骨头也很难还原。我想这也许是野兽的本性。We are gonna have to find a compromise and well live with it.我们必须找到中和的方案,然后适应它。Back in L.A., there are two months to go before the exhibition opens. The 3 T-rexes are now installed.回到洛杉矶,离展览会很有两个月的时间。3个宝贝龙的骨架已经安装好了。201301/221300

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