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探索世界奥秘之The Ghost In Your Genes(基因外遗传现象) 11But could this effect be transmitted to their offspring?They found nearly 200 women of whom a number had actually been in the Twin Towers. About half of them developed post-traumatic stress disorder. We then looked at those women and found they had abnormal cortisol in their saliva. The most striking finding was, so did their babies. The argument in the Holocaust survivors had been that their children show abnormal stress hormones because they themselves have been stressed by listening to these tales recounted by their parents of their awful exposures during the 1940s. That could not be the case with the 9/11 survivors. These babies were one year old. Not only did infants had lower cortisol levels but they were different, depending on how pregnant the mother was on 9/11. The main effect was only seen with those mothers with PTSD who were pregnant in the last third of pregnancy. Mothers with equal levels of PTSD who were pregnant in the first and second third of pregnancy at 9/11, there was very little effect on the babies' cortisol. It suggested to us there couldn't just be about genetics, but there was something that was being transmitted in the late stages of pregnancy where the mother's symptoms were having some effect on the development of the offspring's cortisol system. It appeared that epigenetics might be responsible that an event had altered the stress response in the children . What these findings did was suggest to us that we need to be looking where we hadn't even considered looking before. To know for certain, that this was an epigenetic effect, they'll need to be sure that their observations weren't simply due to high levels of stress hormones in the womb. Now and here is the bit where we have to speculate. The animal work would suggest that this might then persist into the next generation. If they find the same stress effects in the children's children of 9/11, then it will be clear that a genetic memory of a stressful event can travel through the generations. That's the key thing next to find out. But the 9/11 population will be very very important for us to be able to follow what is a single discrete event.The work of Yehuda and Seckl offers tantalizing evidence of proof of inherited epigenetic effects in humans. But they need data that extends beyond just one generation. The only way forward was to look back to the past. In Sweden, Pembrey and Bygren had data that provided the chance to study the effects of famine through many generations.New Words amp; Phrases:tantalize: If someone or something tantalizes you, they make you feel hopeful and excited about getting what you want, usually before disappointing you by not letting you have what they appeared to offer. 强烈的诱惑, 逗惹200807/45048。

US Senate Opens Debate on Climate Change Bill美国参议院辩论减排温室气体法案  The U.S. Senate has begun debate on legislation aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming. In a 74 to 14 procedural vote, senators agreed to move ahead with debate late Monday. But chances of the bill's passage appear slim, with many lawmakers concerned about its impact on the economy. 美国国会参议院开始就一项气候问题立法进行辩论,这项法案的目的在于减少造成全球变暖的温室气体排放。在74票赞成14票反对的程序性投票后,参议员们同意星期一晚些时候开始辩论。但是这项法案获得通过的可能性很小, 因为很多国会议员担心这项立法会对经济产生冲击。The legislation would set caps on U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from electric utility, transportation and manufacturing industries beginning in 2012, with the goal of reducing such emissions by as much as 66 percent by 2050. 这项法案将为美国的温室气体排放设定上限,从2012年开始,电力业、交通运输和制造业都要减少温室气体排放,到2050年,实现减排66%。Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut, who calls himself an independent Democrat, is a chief sponsor of the measure: 来自康涅狄克州、自称是独立民主党人的利伯曼是提案主要发起人之一。"Beginning in 2012, this legislation would place a cap on the aggregate greenhouse emissions that 2,100 facilities in America that are responsible for 85 percent of those emissions in this country," said Senator Lieberman. 利伯曼说:“从2012年开始,这项立法将为美国两千一百个设施的温室气体排放总和设定上限,它们的排放量占全国的80%。”The bill would create an incentive system that would give credits to industries that cut pollution. Industries that failed to reduce emissions would be forced to buy credits from others. 这项议案将设立奖励制度,给减少污染的工业记点。而不能完成减排指标的工业将被迫要从其他企业那里购买点数。Senator John Warner, a Virginia Republican, the other cosponsor of the bill, says Americans are concerned about the impact of climate change and want Congress to act. 议案的另一位发起人、维吉尼亚州共和党参议员约翰.沃纳说,美国人对气候变暖的影响感到关切,希望国会采取行动。"There is a great feeling all across America by people in small villages and towns and large cities to state legislatures and others that we must move and move now," said Senator Warner. "Do something. Doing nothing is not an option." 沃纳说:“美国各地,不论是村庄,小镇,大城市,还是各州议会,都有一种深切的认识, 都认为我们必须行动,现在就行动,拿出实际行动。无所作为不是我们的选项。”But other Republicans, including President Bush reject the legislation, saying it would increase energy costs and lead to job losses. 不过其他共和党人,包括布什总统都反对这个法案,他们说,这样会提高能源成本并导致工作机会流失。Even before the Senate began considering the bill, the president highlighted his opposition, saying the measure would cost the U.S. economy trillion. 甚至在参议院考虑这个议案之前,布什就强调了他的反对意见,说这个议案将使美国经济损失六万亿美元。"There's a much better way to address the environment than imposing these costs on the job creators, which will ultimately have to be borne by American consumers," said President Bush. "And I urge the Congress to be very careful about running up enormous costs for future generations of Americans." 布什说:“保护环境有一个更好的方式,比强制那些能创造工作机会的企业增加成本的作法要好,而这些成本最终要由美国消费者承担。我敦促国会要特别谨慎地对待会给美国未来几代人带来巨大代价的作法。”White House spokeswoman Dana Perino said the president would veto the bill in its present form. 白宫发言人佩里诺说,布什总统将否决现在这个法案。Senator James Inhofe, an Oklahoma Republican, says the legislation does nothing to press other nations, particularly China and India, to cut their emissions. 来自奥克拉荷马州的共和党参议员詹姆斯.英赫夫说,这个法案完全没有要求其它国家、特别是中国和印度,减少温室气体排放。"All major emitting countries, including developing nations, must participate in order for any U.S. program to produce meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases," said Senator Inhofe. "Today, China emits more carbon dioxide than we do, and that divide is only going to grow." 英赫夫说:“所有主要的温室气体排放国家,包括发展中国家,都必须参与其中,这样,美国的减排措施才可能产生有意义的效果。今天中国排放的二氧化碳超过了我们,这种差别只会加大。”Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, a Nevada Democrat, responded: 参议院多数党领袖哈利.里德是来自内华达州的民主党人,他说:"Should we as some say wait for China and India to act? Of course not, Mr. [Senate] President," said Senator Reid. "Since when does America let other countries lead the way? It is our responsibility to forge the path that other nations will follow." “我们是否应该像一些人说的那样,等待中国和印度采取行动呢?当然不是,美国从什么时候开始让其它国家来牵头了? 我们的责任是开创道路,其它的国家会跟进来。”All three major presidential candidates, Republican Senator John McCain and Democratic Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, support government-imposed limits on greenhouse gas emissions.  所有三名竞选美国总统的人--共和党的麦凯恩参议员以及民主党的奥巴马和克林顿参议员都持政府对温室气体排放进行限制。Supporters of the Senate bill believe chances for passage will be better when there is a new occupant in the White House next year. 持参议院这项议案的人认为,明年总统换届时之后议案通过的机会将比较大。200806/41043。

Oh not again!不,不是又来了吧!You two just cant leave each other alone…你们俩真是难舍难分……Bbbut it was just…但只是……Say no more Anna.不用多说了,安娜。Now, I was looking for my special red pen, have you seen it anywhere?我在找我的专用红笔,你们看见了吗?No. Funny that, my pens have gone missing too.不,奇怪的是我的笔也丢了。Ill go and get some more.我去再拿点。Now Anna, I dont want to interfere but have you called that company in France to see how they are?安娜,我不想干涉你,但你有没有给法国的公司打电话问问怎么样?Well, theyre fine arent they?他们应该没问题吧?Its good customer service to call them and see how they are.给他们打电话询问体现了良好的客户务。But what do I say?但我要说什么?Tell you what.我来告诉你。Ill go over there and you can call me and practise.我去那边,然后你给我打电话练习一下。Right.好的。OK Tom, Im calling your number now.好的,汤姆,我给你打电话了。Hello – Fruit Traders International.你好,这里是Fruit Traders International。Yes, hello…你好。…introduce yourself and ask me how I am.介绍你自己然后问问我怎么样。Oh right.没错。Hello Im Anna from Tip Top Trading.你好,我是Tip Top Trading的安娜。How are you today?今天过得怎么样?Im very well.我很好。Now ask me about the order.问问我订单的事。 /201705/508477。

What? Bite my head off!什么?咬下我的头!Oh… well, if he won’t bite me… then I suppose I should go and see him.好吧,只要他别咬我……我想我应该去见见他。Thanks for your advice Denise, I could kiss you.谢谢你告诉我这些丹尼斯,真想亲亲你。Right, I’m going to go and see him right now.好的,我现在就去见他。Make an action plan! A good idea.写一份行动计划!好主意。Well done Denise, you’re smarter than you look!干得好丹尼斯,原来你比看起来要聪明!And well done Anna, you eventually got the help you needed by using these phrases.你也干得不错,安娜,总算用上了这些句子来请求别人的帮助。I would be most grateful if you could give me some help.如果您能帮我个帮我将万分感谢。Please could I ask you for some advice?请问您能不能给我些建议?I know you’re busy but could you spare me a few minutes of your time please?我知道您很忙,不过能不能耽误您几分钟时间?Remember, if you’re stuck for ideas just ask for help…but maybe not Tom, I wonder how he’s getting on?记住,如果你一时想不出办法,可以向别人寻求帮助……但也许不是找汤姆,我想知道他那边找的怎么样了?Here Anna, I’ve got them.给你,安娜,我找到了。Look, all my ideas from my last stock control project…pages and pages of them.你看,这些就是我上一个库存管理项目里想出的点子……好多好多页呢。Just copy these, they’re brilliant. Anna? Anna!复印一下就可以用了,这些材料棒极了。安娜?安娜!…too late, I’ve just seen her in the lift. Fancy a custard cream Tom?太晚了,我刚才看她进电梯了。想不想来点蛋奶饼干,汤姆?So Anna is off to speak to the prickly Mr Ingle.所以现在安娜正在坐电梯下去找不容易对付的英格尔先生谈话。Let’s hope she uses those phrases to ask for help, otherwise she might get her head bitten off – and it could get very messy!希望她能用到那些求助的好句子,要不然她的头会被咬掉的,那可就麻烦了!See you next time.下次见啦! /201702/483868。

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is expressing concern over Burma's decision to exclude pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from future elections. The statement from ASEAN follows the completion of Burma's draft constitution. But the regional bloc still says it will not interfere in Burma's domestic affairs.  东南亚国家联盟对缅甸当局有关不准民主运动领袖昂山素季参加未来选举的决定表示关注。东盟是在缅甸通过宪法草案之后发表声明的。不过,东盟仍然表示不会干预缅甸的内部事务。Singaporean Foreign Minister George Yeo says Burma's decision to bar Aung San Suu Kyi from participating in elections is odd and out of date. Singapore currently holds ASEAN's rotating leadership. Yeo spoke late Tuesday in Singapore, where foreign ministers from the 10-member organization are holding meetings. 新加坡外长杨荣文说,缅甸当局决定禁止昂山素季参加选举是奇怪的、过时的。新加坡目前是东盟的轮值主席。杨荣文星期二晚间在新加坡发表讲话。东盟10国正在新加坡举行外长会议。But, in keeping with ASEAN's history of non-interference in member states' affairs, Yeo also said the group could do little about Burma's decision. 杨荣文同时表示,遵照东盟不干涉成员国内部事务的传统,东盟对缅甸当局的这项决定几乎不能采取任何行动。On Tuesday, Burma's state-run radio said a 54-member commission had approved the draft constitution. It prohibits Aung San Suu Kyi from participating in elections because she was married to a foreigner. The democracy leader was married to a British national, who died of cancer in 1999.  缅甸官方电台星期二说,由54人组成的委员会已经批准了宪法草案。宪法草案规定,鉴于昂山素季与外国人结婚,因此不得参加选举。这位民主运动领袖与一个英国公民结婚,她的丈夫已于1999年死于癌症。Roshan Jason is executive director of the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus in Malaysia. He said ASEAN's statement on Burma was weak, especially since it recently signed a charter that calls on member states to protect human rights in the region. 罗山.贾森是东盟设在马来西亚的缅甸问题议会委员会负责人。他说,东盟针对缅甸发表的声明是软弱无力的,考虑到东盟最近刚刚签署了敦促成员国保护本地区人权的宪章,尤其是这样。"I think ASEAN has failed in its first attempt to uphold its promises to make sure the region consists of countries which respect human rights," said Jason. 他说:“我认为,东盟在首次做出尝试的时候,就没有履行有关确保本地区各国都尊重人权的承诺。”Aung San Suu Kyi has spent 12 of the last 18 years under detention, and is currently under house arrest in Rangoon. Her party won a landslide election in 1990, but the military government refused to recognize the results. Since then, it has prevented the party from taking office. 在以往18年期间,昂山素季受到12年拘押,目前被软禁在仰光。她的党在1990年选举中获得压倒胜利,但军政权拒绝承认选举结果。此后,军政权一直不准这个党的成员担任公职。Jason said he does not expect ASEAN to take a stronger stance anytime soon, because addressing human rights in Burma could force other member states to acknowledge their own shortcomings. 贾森说,他不指望东盟会很快采取更强硬的立场,因为一旦涉及缅甸的人权问题,就会迫使其他国家承认本国的缺点。"You have countries in the region as well, member states of ASEAN, who have, who are in their own way, levels, committing human rights abuses," noted Jason. "You've got draconian laws in various countries; you've got arbitrary arrests; you've got former military dictatorships taking the form of civil, political groups." 他说:“本地区还有东盟的其他成员国,这些国家也存在侵犯人权现象,只是方式和水平不同。一些国家存在严酷的法律,存在任意逮捕现象,一些前军事独裁政权换用了文官和政治组织的形式。”Jason also says the bloc is choosing money over the basic rights of Burma's people, as many ASEAN members have strong business interests in Burma. ASEAN has argued that trade will help bring about reform in Burma, one of the poorest countries in the region. 贾森还说,很多东盟成员国在缅甸有着很大的商业利益,因此把金钱置于缅甸人民的基本人权之上。东盟坚持认为,贸易将有助于缅甸实行民主。缅甸是东南亚最贫穷的国家之一。Burma says it will hold a national referendum in May to approve the new draft constitution. The international community has criticized the document because Aung San Suu Kyi and independent political parties were barred from the drafting process. Burma's military government says general elections will be held in 2010.  缅甸表示,将在今年5月举行一次全民公投,决定是否批准新宪法草案。昂山素季和独立政治党派被禁止参与这部宪法的起草过程,因此宪法草案受到国际社会的批评。缅甸军政府说,将在2010年举行大选。200802/27662。