原标题: 周庄镇人民中心医院联系电话飞度排名名医
Maryland increased its liquor taxes in 2011 and a sharp decrease in the rate of new gonorrhea infections immediately followed. Researchers have determined that the two events are closely linked. 2011年,马里兰州提高了酒类税,随即新发淋病感染率就急剧下降。研究人员现已确定这两个事件之间存在密切关联。The study, in The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, used three control groups to exclude other explanations for the decline. The first control group included all states that did not change alcohol taxes. The second group looked at states that did not share a border with Maryland, in order to avoid bias from people buying liquor in nearby states where the taxes were lower. And the third group eliminated states in which the government has a monopoly on hard liquor sales, since prices may rise in those states even without an increase in taxes.这项研究发表在《美国预防医学杂志》(American Journal of Preventive Medicine)上,它使用了三个对照组来排除感染率下降的其他解释。第一个对照组纳入了所有未改变酒类税的州。第二组研究了与马里兰州不接壤的州,以避免因人们从附近税收较低的州购买酒类而产生的偏倚。第三组排除了那些由政府垄断烈性酒销售的州,因为即使没有加税,这些州的酒类价格也可能会上涨。In 2011, the Maryland liquor tax rose to 9 percent from 6 percent. After the increase, Maryland’s gonorrhea rate declined by 24 percent — the equivalent of 1,600 cases per year. There was no decrease in the control states.2011年,马里兰州的酒类税从6%增加到了9%。 加税后,马里兰州的淋病率下降了24%,相当于每年1600例。而对照组的各州中则没有降低。The authors suggest that decreased alcohol consumption decreases sexual risk-taking, including unprotected sex, casual sex and sex with new partners.作者认为,饮酒的减少降低了性冒险,包括无保护的性行为、性滥交以及与新的性伙伴发生性行为等。“Policy makers should consider raising liquor taxes if they’re looking for ways to prevent sexually transmitted infections,” said the lead author, Stephanie A.S. Staras, an assistant professor at the University of Florida College of Medicine. “In the year and a half following the alcohol tax rise in Maryland, this prevented 2,400 cases of gonorrhea and saved half a million dollars in health care costs.”“如果政策制定者们在寻找防止性传播感染的途径,他们应该考虑提高酒类税,”该研究的主要作者,美国佛罗里达大学医学院(University of Florida College of Medicine)的助理教授斯蒂芬妮·A·S·斯塔拉斯(Stephanie A.S. Staras)说。“在马里兰州酒类税上涨后的一年半期间,这一举措预防了2400例淋病,节省了约50万美元的医疗费用。” /201602/428248

Find yourself sniffling over a cute puppy ? For some, crying isn#39;t a rare occurrence. The tears can flow for seemingly no reason at all, and although people may accuse you of being too sensitive, experts say there may be an actual scientific reason why you#39;re more tearful than your dry-eyed friends.你是否看着一个可爱小的视频而抽泣?对一些人来说,哭并不是罕见的事。眼泪可以没有任何理由地流下,尽管有人会指责你太敏感了,但专家认为更容易流泪的背后或许是有科学原因的。There isn#39;t a definitive reason as to why some of us cry more than the average person, but experts point to a range of factors including gender and whether a person may have experienced trauma in their past. Men are predisposed to avoid crying, since doing so can interfere with the way peers perceive them.对于为何有些人比普通人更容易流泪,并没有一个确切的原因,但是专家指出了一系列的原因,包括性别和这个人是否在过去经历过一些创伤。男人更倾向于避免流泪,因为流泪会改变同伴对他的看法。And while it#39;s true that some women are more prone to waterworks during that time of the month, other factors that may come into play include birth control pills and hormonal fluctuations that can occur around menopause.另外,尽管女人确实会在每个月的那几天里更容易流泪,其他原因或许也有一定的影响,比如避药和经绝期的荷尔蒙波动。Of course it#39;s also no surprise that if you#39;re bogged down at work and aren#39;t getting enough sleep, that can also play into why your tear ducts are working in overdrive. The solution? Make sure you#39;re getting eight hours of sleep at night and try meditation or yoga to bring stress levels down.当然,如果你事业陷于泥沼或睡眠不足,也可以导致你的眼泪输送管超速传动。那解决措施呢?保每天八小时的睡眠并尝试冥想或瑜伽来降低你的压力水平。But even if you do end up weeping a little too often, don#39;t fret. According to a Health.com article, ;past studies have found that crying can have soothing, mood-boosting effects.;但即使你没有减少流泪的次数,也不要焦虑。根据一篇Health.com的文章,“过去的研究发现流泪可以起到抚慰心灵,振奋情绪的作用。”If your crying is becoming a persistent problem though, talk to your doctor as it may be a sign of depression.但如果流泪已经成为一个持久的问题,最好去看一下医生因为这也许是抑郁症的前兆。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201511/412808Marquis Wen of Wei, a famous statesman, appointed Li Kui to carry out reforms.魏国的建立者魏文侯是著名的政治家,任用李悝进行改革。Li Kui changed the old hereditary system, and put two new agricultural policies into practice, which encouraged peasants to develop agriculture and stabilized food prices.李悝改变旧的“世卿世禄”制度,实行“尽地力”与“善平籴”两项农业政策,鼓励农民积极发展生产,稳定粮食价格。Meanwhile, he formulated A Book of Laws , a famous law book.此外,李悝还制定了《法经》。Though it was set to protect the interests of the exploiting class, it placed an important role in maintaining the social order and stabilizing the political situation in Wei.这一法律虽然主要是保护剥削阶级的利益,但对魏国来说,在维护社会秩序、稳定政局方面,起了重要的作用。After a series reforms, Wei became the strongest state in the early Spring and Autumn Period.经过一系列改革,魏国成为战国初期最强大的国家。In 382 B. C. , Chu King Dao designated Wu Qi to reform. Similar to Li Kui, he focused his reform on the hereditary system, selecting and appointing persons on their merits, rewards and punishments being rigid.周安王二十年(公元前382年),楚悼王任用吴起进行变法,他改革的重点和李悝一样,主要也是在于削弱旧的“世卿世禄”制度,选贤任能,赏罚严明。There measures rectified the political system, and strengthened the armed forces, which benefited the state but aroused the resentment of nobles.楚国经过此次改革,政治得到整顿,军力也日益强大。改革虽有利于国家,却引起了贵族的不满。As the conservative forces of Chu were poweful, when Chu King Dao died, Wu Qi was killed with arrows, and his reforms were nearly abolished.楚国旧势力强大,楚悼王刚死,吴起就被乱箭射死,其改革几乎都被废除。Zhao, Han, Qi and Yan also reformed, but the most radical one took place in Qin launched by Shang Yang.赵、韩、齐、燕四国亦进行了改革,但战国时期最彻底的改革当数秦国的“商鞅变法”。Shang Yang was a declining noble of Wei, and his surname was Gongsun, a distinguished legalist. He went to Qin for not being put in an important position in Wei.商鞍姓公孙,名鞅,卫国没落贵族,杰出的法家,他在魏不被重用而入秦。In Qin he was enfiefed in Shang (in Southeast of Shang County in Shaanxi)due to his merits, therefore he was called Shang Yang.在秦以功封于商(今陕西商县东南),因称商君,亦称商鞅。Shang Yang ’ s reform was a thorough revolution of the landlord class.秦国的“商鞅变法”是一场比较彻底的地主阶级政治改革。In 356 B. C. and 350 B. C. , Duke Xiao of Qin appointed Shang Yang to reform twice. His measures included : encouraging the population growth, elevating agriculture and downgrading commerce, abolishing the traditional privileges of the nobles, rewarding a person for his military exploit, registering the residents.公元前356年和公元前350年,秦孝公任用商鞅进行了两次变法,内容包括鼓励人口增长,重农抑商,废除世卿世禄制度,奖励军功,编制户口,为实现中央集权而建立县制。To establish a political system of centralization, Shang Yang grouped all villages and towns into 31 counties governed by magistrates, who were designated by the monarch, in which way the sovereign ’ s control could be reached.在全国设置31个县,国君直接派官吏治理,国家统一控制。Since the reform of Shang Yang, Qin became the most powerful state in a short time.自商鞅变法后,秦国一跃成为七国中实力最强的国家。Though Shang Yang was put to death by his opponents, the new laws were not eliminated, which paved the way for Qin to conquer the other six states and unify the whole country.虽然后来商鞅被车裂而死,新法却并未废止。商鞅变法为秦消灭六国、统一中国奠定了基础。 /201511/407437

Today we regard the oyster and lobster as luxury foods, but it has not always been so. Oysters have been commercially farmed since the time of the Romans and have a remarkable talent: when collected, they close their watertight shells, trapping seawater inside. This useful skill doubtless evolved so they could survive being beached at low tide. But it meant that oysters could be shovelled into a barrel, carted to a city, and left under a bar — sometimes for weeks — while remaining alive and fresh.今天,牡蛎和龙虾被视为奢侈的食物,但情况并非一直如此。从罗马时代起,人们就一直对牡蛎进行商业化养殖。牡蛎有一种非凡的本领:当被采集的时候,它们会将自己的外壳闭合得滴水不漏,将海水封存在里面。这种有用的技能无疑是为了在退潮搁浅时存活下来而进化出来的。但这也意味着人们可以把牡蛎铲进桶里,用车运往城市并放在酒吧里——有时一放就是几星期——而牡蛎在此期间一直保持鲜活。Lobsters, or similar forms of invertebrate, crustacean arthropod have been around longer than humans and it is quite possible that we have been eating them for a very long time. They are also unique among the food we eat today in that we often buy them alive and kill them ourselves. They are plentiful, at no particular risk of extinction, and utterly delicious, having sweeter and better-textured flesh than fish. They survive in a wide range of sea temperatures and are easiest caught by simple and sustainable methods.龙虾,或者类似的无脊椎甲壳类节肢动物,比人类的历史更长,很可能我们食用它们的时间也很长。在今天的食物中,它们也比较独特,因为我们经常购买活的,并自行在吃的时候杀了它们。它们的数量很多,没有灭绝的危险,而且十分美味,比鱼肉更鲜甜口感更好。它们在温度范围很广的海水中都能生存,使用简单和可持续的方法就很容易捕捞。Like oysters, the creatures’ ability to survive out of water meant they could be transported far inland and supply spankingly fresh protein long before refrigeration made it possible to distribute other forms of fresh fish. For this reason, lobster and oysters were often considered a food of the poor in industrialised cities. Nineteenth-century prison governors in some coastal states of the US were forbidden to feed their prisoners lobster more than a few times a week, as it was considered a “cruel and unusual” privation.就像牡蛎一样,这类生物在出水后存活的能力都很强,人们可以把它们运往遥远的内陆。远在制冷技术使得分销其他种类的鲜鱼变为可能之前,它们就在为人类提供极为新鲜的蛋白质。因此,龙虾和牡蛎过去常被视为工业化城市中穷人的食物。在19世纪的美国,一些沿海州的监狱每周给囚犯提供龙虾的次数是有上限的,因为顿顿吃龙虾被视为一种“残酷而不寻常的”煎熬。At low tide you can still wander along the muddy banks of the Thames in London and see vast “middens” of discarded oyster shells. These mark the spot of bank-side pubs, where revellers would consume huge numbers of oysters and throw the shells into the river. As the deposits are still there after centuries we can assume London’s dock labourers were ordering oysters at a far greater rate than the wealthiest occupants of the City can afford to today.在退潮的时候,你依然可以漫步伦敦泰晤士河泥泞的河岸,看到丢弃的牡蛎壳形成的巨大“贝丘”。它们与河岸酒吧的位置对应,泡这些酒吧的人会吃掉大量牡蛎,然后把牡蛎壳扔进河里。在数个世纪后,这些沉积物依然在这些地方,我们可以设想,当年伦敦的码头工人食用牡蛎的数量远远超过当今伦敦金融城最富裕的居民所能负担的程度。As industrialised cities developed, what we would now call “supply chains” were created and preserved, packaged, tinned and eventually chilled products became the more convenient diet. Prestige restaurants, though, never fell out of love with food so fresh that it still moved, and developed dishes that remain in the canon today. It is hard to go wrong with lobster Newburg (egg-enriched cream and cognac), lobster a [grave accent]l’armoricaine (tomato, tarragon, shallots), or the king of the lobster dishes, first created by Auguste Escoffier in about 1880. [cut 1849] Lobster Thermidor is superbly rich and massively complicated. It is also delicious, combining a cream sauce enriched with eggs, sherry and mushrooms with a gratin topping.随着工业化城市的发展,人们创建了我们现在所称的“供应链”,腌制、罐头以及最后出现的冰鲜产品成为了最方便的食品。不过,讲究的餐厅从未放弃对还能动的极其新鲜的食物的喜爱,并且研制出了一些到今天还经久不衰的菜肴。到餐厅点龙虾钮堡(lobster Newburg,配料包括富含鸡蛋的奶油和白兰地)或者美国龙虾(lobster a l’armoricaine,配料包括番茄、龙蒿和葱)总是没错的,还有就是奥古斯特埃斯科菲耶(Auguste Escoffier)在1880年前后首创的金牌龙虾菜:热月龙虾(Lobster Thermidor)风味浓郁,做法繁复。这道菜也十分美味,配料包括富含鸡蛋的奶油酱、雪莉酒、蘑菇加上焗烤脆皮。While some restaurants still feature oyster and lobster as premium dishes, it is not unusual to be offered oysters, fried or baked, as affordable starters — something never seen a few years ago. In the run up to Christmas, the discount supermarket chains Lidl and Iceland are offering frozen lobsters for under 5 (they make a great Thermidor).尽管一些餐厅依然将牡蛎和龙虾作为高端菜肴提供,但将炸牡蛎或者烤牡蛎作为价格较为低廉的前菜供应的餐厅如今也不少——这种事在几年前还闻所未闻。圣诞节即将来临之际,英国的连锁折扣超市Lidl和Iceland出售价格低于5英镑的冰冻龙虾(用它们来烹饪热月龙虾味道极好)。Lobsters and oysters are robust creatures and they breed vigorously. We have artificially kept them as prestige foods, so it is unsurprising that their price is now dropping.龙虾和牡蛎生命力顽强,繁殖能力也很强。它们昂贵的身价是人为的,因此现在价格下降也就不令人惊讶了。Now that previously aristocratic salmon is the go-to protein at every corporate event or provincial wedding, perhaps we should wonder at what is next. The answer may again come from under the sea. In the 1930s Josef Stalin ordered the introduction of the red king or Kamchatka crab to the Barents Sea to create a new source of cheap protein for Soviet workers. Eventually the crabs, indigenous to the northern Pacific, grew to accept their warmer home, breeding prolifically, moulting more regularly and growing up to 2m in leg span.既然以前只有富人才能享用的三文鱼成了企业活动或者婚礼上的首选蛋白质,或许我们应该想想下一个会轮到谁。或许依然来自于海中。上世纪30年代,约瑟夫斯大林(Josef Stalin)下令把红帝王蟹(即勘察加蟹,Kamchatka crab)引入巴伦海(Barents Sea),目的是为苏联的工人开辟一种新的廉价蛋白质来源。最终,这种原产于北太平洋的螃蟹开始适应更温暖的新家,开始大量繁殖、更加频繁地换壳,足展长度达到了2米。They were so successful that they began migrating across the ocean floor in vast packs. Spider crabs the width of cars are, even now, moving along the bottom of the North Sea towards the UK coast, eating everything in their path. It is the stuff of science fiction movies.它们繁殖得太好,因此开始成群地穿过海底进行迁徙。即使是现在,有汽车宽度那么大的蜘蛛蟹也在北海海底向英国海岸迁移,吃掉它们行进路途上的一切。这简直就是科幻电影中发生的事情。At the moment, Kamchatka crab is a delicacy in London restaurants, where the ability to select a live, angry, metre-wide creature from a tank and have it killed and brought steaming to the table is a spectacle that delights the super rich. But the crabs have reached the Norwegian coast. It is only a matter of time before they come ashore here, lurching up the beach having acquired a taste for human flesh — so we need to start acquiring a taste for theirs, fast. King crabmeat is superb, with a meatier texture and sweeter taste than its skinny little capitalist cousin. Surely, government must intervene. Drop the prices — we need to eat them before they eat us.现在,勘察加蟹是伦敦餐厅中的一道佳肴。看着厨师从水箱里选择一只鲜活、张牙舞爪、宽度达到一米的勘察加蟹,宰杀并蒸好端上桌,成为了超级富豪的一件乐事。但这些螃蟹们已经抵达了挪威海岸。这些螃蟹在英伦三岛登陆,在尝到人肉的滋味后横行海滩只是时间问题——因此,我们要先下手为强,先把它们当成美味,而且要快。红帝王蟹的肉质绝佳,比它们在资本主义国家生长的瘦小兄弟更肥硕,更鲜甜。政府必须要加以干预。降低价格——我们得在它们吃掉我们之前吃掉它们。 /201512/414584

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