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襄樊治疗不育不孕费用多少襄阳四院医院无痛人流Science and Technology Palaeontology Splay-footed, not flat-footed科技 古生物学 不是扁平足而是八字足A new fossil shows that evolution does not always mean change新发现的化石显示,进化并不总意味着变化WHEN a coelacanth, a type of lobe-finned fish once considered the missing link between fish and amphibians, was found off the coast of South Africa in 1938, it came as a shock to palaeontologists. Until then, the most recent traces of such a creature had been in rocks dating from the last days of the dinosaurs, 65m years ago. It was, in its way, as surprising as if a live Tyrannosaurus had been found hiding in an obscure part of Montana. Now the same experience is hitting palaeontologists again—but this time in reverse. Instead of finding a ;living fossil; identical to an ancient beast, they have found a real fossil identical to a modern one.1938年当一种空棘鱼目鱼类---曾被认为是一种消失的连接鱼类和两栖动物的物种在南非海岸被发现时,古生物学家们为之一惊。至到当时,这种生物最新的踪迹只出现在可以追溯到距今六千五百万年前恐龙时代末期的化石中。其惊人程度就如同在蒙大拿的某个阴暗地方发现了一只躲藏于其中的活体霸王龙。如今,同样的事件再次让古生物学家们感到震惊---但是这次恰恰相反,他们不是发现了一个与远古生物雷同的;活化石;,而是发现了一个与现代生物一致的真化石。The fossil in question, a 100m-year-old specimen from north-east Brazil, belongs to the genus Schizodactylus. These are large, carnivorous, cricket-like insects whose feet splay out wildly in different directions. Modern Schizodactylus use their feet like snowshoes, to help them remain stable as they travel over sandy terrain in search of prey.这里所讨论的化石中的生物是一个来自巴西东北部距今一亿年前的物种,属于Schizodactylus昆虫科。它们是一些大型,蟋蟀状食肉昆虫,其足向不同方向伸展。当现代Schizodactylus科昆虫在沙地中搜寻猎物时,其足有如雪鞋可以帮助它们保持稳定。If the new fossil—whose discovery has just been published in ZooKeys by Sam Heads of the Illinois Natural History Survey and Léa Leuzinger of the University of Fribourg, in Switzerland—were merely similar to modern splay-footed insects, the find would not be particularly surprising: it simply demonstrates a phenomenon called evolutionary stasis, in which a specific type of body form hangs around for a long time. What is surprising is just how static Schizodactylus has been.如果该新发现的化石---它的发掘已经被来自伊利诺亚州自然历史调查所的山姆.海兹以及来自瑞士夫里堡大学的雷.卢辛格发表在了《Zookeys》杂志上---仅仅是与现代八字足昆虫相似,那么这一发现也没有什么大惊小怪的:因为这只显示了一种叫做;进化停止;的现象,其间某一特定体态在相当长一段时间内保持不变。然而让人感到惊奇的是Schizodactylus科昆虫的进化尽然是如此得缓慢。Evolutionary stasis is fairly common at the higher levels of the Linnaean system of biological classification (class, order and family). Natural selection hits on a good design. That design is then adopted in slightly different forms by species after species. The shelled bodies of turtles, for example, evolved between 250m and 200m years ago, while the body plans of scorpions have been around for more than 400m years. That does not mean, however, that a zoologist would mistake a 200m-year-old turtle or a 400m-year-old scorpion for any species now alive.进化停止在生物分类法(如纲,目和科的分类)的林奈分类体系中的高级别生物里比较常见。当自然选择挑中了一个理想的设计后,一个接一个的物种便以略微不同的形式采纳这种设计。举个例子,海龟的甲状躯壳约在2亿5千万年前至2亿年前就已经进化完成,相比之下蝎子的身体构制更是在4亿多年内都未有大的变化。然而,这并不意味着一位动物学家可以将一只2亿年前的海龟或是一只4亿年前的蝎子与现在对应的活体物种混为一谈。What is remarkable about the new find is that it is so similar to modern animals that it can be assigned to an existing genus—the lowest level of Linnaean classification above a species—rather than just to some higher taxonomic group. That is rare indeed. Even the modern coelacanth, on closer examination, had to be put in a different genus from any known fossil.而这一新发现令人关注的地方在于化石中的物种与现代对应物种是如此得相似以至于它可以被当作是现代物种的某一现存种类---种类是林奈物种分类法中最低的一级,而不是更高级别的种群。这的确很罕见。经过进一步检验,(我们发现)就算是(当时在南非海岸发现的)现代空棘鱼的种类也有别于任何已知化石中的空棘鱼的种类。Clearly the body plan of Schizodactylus is not merely good, but optimal, at least for the environment the animal lives in. Alas for Schizodactylus, the sandy deserts it prefers have retreated from north-eastern Brazil and its optimality there has vanished. But its discovery shows better what this part of the world was like 100m years ago—and also illustrates an important point about evolution that is often forgotten in biologists understandable focus on the development of novelty. The first rule of natural selection is: ;If it aint broke, dont fix it.;显然,Schizodactylus科昆虫拥有的的身体构制不仅令人满意,而且是最佳的,至少是为了其所生存的环境而生。而让Schizodactylus科昆虫感到悲哀的是其所青睐的沙漠在巴西已经消退而它们的最佳身体构制也随之消失。但是该化石的发现更好地展示了世界的这一地区在1亿年前是个什么摸样---同时也阐明了有关进化的一点重要内容,一个经常在生物学家对于发展的推陈出新所持有的一种可理解的关注中而被遗忘的一点内容。自然选择的第一条规则就是:;未损勿修。; /201301/219922襄阳市哪个医院的牛皮癣好 Books and Arts; Book Review;New fiction;Rings of truth;文艺;书评;新小说;真实的故事;Gold. By Chris Cleave.《赤子之心》,克瑞斯·克里夫著。Novels about sport are notoriously hard to pull off. It seems somewhat odd for a literary mind to care how often a ball makes it to the back of the net or how long it takes to sprint down a track. Yet that need not be so. The classic quest narrative—in which an individual overcomes obstacles to achieve a goal—could be a template for any single match or sporting career. “Gold”, Chris Cleaves third novel, is a skilful demonstration of the form.写一部关于体育运动的小说,显然是有难度的。让文学去关注一粒球怎样入网,冲刺终点需要多长时间,看起来多少有点奇怪。然而,事实也不尽然。古典文学所追求的叙述方式往往是一个从克障碍到实现目标的过程。这其实和任何一场单独的比赛或者体育项目的逻辑是一致的。《赤子之心》——克里夫的第三本小说,正是这种叙述方式的巧妙呈现。This is the story of Zoe, Kate and Jack, three obsessive race cyclists who meet as young hopefuls. There is bike geekery and Lycra aplenty. As the title suggests, Mr Cleave even dares to set his story around the Olympics, the ultimate sporting circus. Yet this is no niche book for aficionados looking for a brief summer distraction.书中讲述了三个人的故事:若伊、凯特和杰克——三个狂热的自行车车手,年轻有为,志同道合。故事里有高水准的自行车“极客”。正如题目所暗示的,克里夫甚至刻意让故事游离在奥运会——那终极的竞技场的边缘。但是,此书也绝对不是为了在炎夏给体育迷们提供一份短暂的消遣。Instead, cycling is the backdrop for a deeper exploration of the struggle between the physical and the psychological. Into the love triangle and professional exertions Mr Cleave throws eight-year-old Sophie, diagnosed with leukaemia only days before the Olympics and fighting a different type of battle to the finish.相反,自行车运动化为了背景。小说在这背景上深入探讨了灵与肉的挣扎。除了三角恋、职业上的进取,克里夫还讲述了苏菲的故事:一个年仅8岁的孩子,在奥林匹克运动会开幕前被诊断出白血病,在生命的尽头处,打了一场特殊的生死之战。At times the book seems slightly sentimental. Sophie and Kate are a little too good to be true; Zoe a bit too deranged and calculating. Yet “Gold” works as a novel because Mr Cleave manages to make the er care about what it takes to win—or even to take part.书中,有些地方的行文会略显情绪化。苏菲和凯特美好得不真实;若伊则又太神经兮兮且斤斤计较。然而,《赤子之心》之成其为小说,在于克里夫将读者的关注点,引向夺冠前的征程,或者说整个参赛的过程,和夺冠与否无关。The small details speak loudly. As the story opens, Zoe stands terrified as 5,000 people chant her name—yet she is equally frightened that one day they may stop. On another occasion she lingers and stares at Kates bike before a race and implants the idea that something could be wrong; she wins the mental advantage, and the quicker start. By such tiny glances and irrecoverable moments lives are changed, a lesson that reaches beyond sport. The moment of winning a gold medal, by contrast, can almost seem disappointing.小细节里有大蕴义。譬如小说开场,5000名观众反复喊着若伊的名字,这让站在台上的她紧张极了;然而若有一天人们不再这么做,她同样会害怕。另外一个场景,在一场比赛开始前,若伊故意徘徊着,盯住凯特的自行车,让对方觉得自己的车子出了毛病。于是她赢得了心理上的优势,在起点上抢占了先机。但是这种伎俩和自私的光景被某种高于体育的精神改变了。相形之下,夺取金牌的时刻,几乎让人沮丧。Mr Cleave knows what makes a good story. Here, his concern is not with macho physicality or crossing a line, but with the endless and enduring human endeavours: love, death and what is left when hopes and dreams are crushed or fulfilled. A book to savour long after the Olympic games are over.克里夫懂得如何把故事讲得精。在书中,他关心的不是体魄的强壮或某一次的胜利,而是无休止的人类的奋斗:爱情,死亡,以及在希望和梦想或破灭或兑现之后,我们的人生还剩下些什么。这样一本书,适合奥林匹克运动会结束后细细品味。 /201212/212386Finance and Economics;Man and machine;财经;投资人与经济机器;The economic ideas of the worlds most successful hedge-fund boss;世界最成功的对冲基金经理的经济思想;“The most beautiful deleveraging yet seen” is how Ray Dalio describes what is now going on in Americas economy. As America has gone through the necessary process of reducing its debt-to-income ratio since the financial crash of 2008, he reckons its policymakers have done well in mixing painful stuff like debt restructuring with injections of cash to keep demand growing. Europes deleveraging, by contrast, is “ugly”.“这是我所见过的最美丽的去杠杆化”Ray Daio如此描述美国的经济现状。2008年经济危机以来,美国经历了为降低负债收入比而必须的的过程,他认为美国的政策制定者们在均衡棘手事务如债务重调和资金注入从而保持需求的持续上升方面做得可圈可点。相比之下,欧洲的去杠杆化显得“丑陋不堪”。Mr Dalios views are taken seriously. He made a fortune betting before the crash that the world had taken on too much debt and would need to slash it. Last year alone, his Bridgewater Pure Alpha fund earned its investors 13.8 billion Dollor, taking its total gains since it opened in 1975 to 35.8 billion Dollor, more than any other hedge fund ever, including the previous record-holder, George Soross Quantum Endowment Fund.Dalio的观点备受界内关注。在经济危机产生之前,他曾对经济局势做了一个断言,即世界经济需要大幅度地削减过重的负债。只去年一年,他的Bridgewater Pure Alpha基金就给投资者带来了138亿美元的回报,这也使得该基金达到自开创以来的358亿美元,并超过了包括以前的纪录保持者George Soros的 Quantum Endownment基金在内的任何一项对冲基金。Mr Dalio, an intense 62-year-old, is following in the footsteps of Mr Soros in other ways, too. Mr Soros has published several books on his theories, and is funding an institute to get mainstream economists to take alternative ideas seriously. Mr Dalio, too, is now trying to improve the public understanding of how the economy works. His economic model “is not very orthodox but gives him a pretty good sense of where the economy is,” says Paul Volcker, a former chairman of Americas Federal Reserve and one of Mr Dalios growing number of influential fans.在其他方面,现如今富有的已62岁的Dalio也在紧跟Soros的步伐。Soros至今已经出版了多本有关其理论的书籍,并正在资助一个机构,以便促使主流经济学家对另类思想加以重视。Dalio也在努力促进公众对经济运作过程的理解。美联储前主席Paul Volcker,作为Dalio日益增多且颇具影响力的粉丝之一,称其经济模式“并非绝对正统,但带给了他相当敏感的经济趋势把握能力”。Whereas Mr Soros credits the influence of Karl Popper, a philosopher who taught him as a student, Mr Dalio says his ideas are entirely the product of his own reflections on his life as a trader and his study of economic history. He has little academic economics (though his work has echoes of Hyman Minsky, an American economist, and of best-selling recent work on downturns by Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff) but has conducted in-depth analysis of past periods of economic upheaval, such as the Depression in America, post-war Britain and the hyperinflation of the Weimar Republic. He has even simulated being an investor in markets in those periods by ing daily papers from these eras, receiving data and “trading” as if in real time.不同的是,Soros把他的成功归于其学生时代的哲学家老师Karl Popper的影响。Dalio则说他的思想完全是自己作为一个交易商的生活感悟和对经济学历史研究的产物。他几乎没有读过正统的学术经济学(虽然他的著作得到了美国经济学家Hyman Minsky以及Carmen Reinhart和Kenneth Rogoff最近有关经济低迷的畅销书的回应),但是他对过去的经济剧变时期的情况作了深入分析,其中包括美国的经济大萧条,战后的英国和魏玛共和国的恶性通货膨胀。他甚至曾假装自己是当时的投资者,通过阅读当时的日报来获得数据信息,并进行现实般的“交易”。In the early 1980s Mr Dalio started writing down rules that would guide his investing. He would later amend these rules depending on how well they predicted what actually happened. The process is now computerised, so that combinations of scores of decision-rules are applied to the 100 or so liquid-asset classes in which Bridgewater invests. These rules led him to hold both government bonds and gold last year, for example, because the deleveraging process was at a point where, unusually, those two assets would rise at the same time. He was right.在20世纪80年代早期,Dalio就开始积累决策规律以备引导他日后的投资。以后的日子里,他会根据这些规律预测事实的准确度来修改它们。现在这项工作已由计算机来处理,从而得出大量决策规律的组合并将其应用于Bridgewater投资的约100项流动资产中。比如在去年,因为不同寻常的是,在去杠杆化进程中政府债券和黄金会同时涨价,这些决策规律指导他同时握有二者。果不其然,他是正确的。What Mr Dalio calls the “timeless and universal” core of his economic ideas is set out in a 20-page “Template for Understanding” that he wrote shortly after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008 and recently updated. The document begins: “The economy is like a machine.” This machine may look complex but is, he insists, relatively simple even if it is “not well understood”. Mr Dalio models the macroeconomy from the bottom up, by focusing on the individual transactions that are the machines moving parts. Conventional economics does not pay enough attention to the individual components of supply and, above all, demand, he says. To understand demand properly, you must know whether it is funded by the buyers own money or by credit from others.Dalio所谓的“不受时间限制,放之四海而皆准”的经济思想核心陈述于20页的《用于理解的模板》中。他写于2008年雷曼兄弟(Lehman Brothers)破产后不久并于近日更新。该文件以“经济就像一台机器”开始,他坚信,这台机器可能看起来复杂,但实际上它是相对简单的,即使是在它“不被很好地理解”的情况下。Dalio通过对经济机器的移动组成部分——个体交易,来自下而上地模拟宏观经济。他说,传统经济学对个体组成的供应尤其是他们的需求关注不够。要恰当地了解需求,你就必须知道为它提供资金的钱是来自购买者自己还是从他人的借贷。A huge amount of Bridgewaters efforts goes into gathering data on credit and equity, and understanding how that affects demand from individual market participants, such as a bank, or from a group of participants (such as subprime-mortgage borrowers). Bridgewater predicted the euro-zone debt crisis by totting up how much debt would need to be refinanced and when; and by examining all the potential buyers of that debt and their ability to buy it. Mr Volcker describes the degree of detail in Mr Dalios work as “mind-blowing” and admits to feeling sometimes that “he has a bigger staff, and produces more relevant statistics and analyses, than the Federal Reserve.”Bridgewater公司花了大力气来收集有关信贷和普通股的数据,并分析其是如何影响单个市场参与者比如一家和一群参与者(比如次级抵押贷款者)的需求的。该公司通过对需要再贷款的债务总值的合计,以及对欧元区债务潜在购买者的数量和他们的购买能力的研究,成功预测了欧元区的债务危机和其发生的时间。Volcker如此描述Dalio工作的细节详细程度——“叹为观止”,他也承认,在有些时候“他(Dalio)有更强大的团队,并能给出比美联储更中肯的统计数据和分析”。Two sorts of credit cycle are at the heart of Mr Dalios economic model: the business cycle, which typically lasts five to eight years, and a long-term (“long wave”) debt cycle, which can last 50-70 years. A business cycle usually ends in a recession, because the central bank raises the interest rate, reducing borrowing and demand. The debt cycle ends in deleveraging because there is a “shortage of capable providers of capital and/or a shortage of capable recipients of capital( borrowers and sellers of equity) that cannot be rectified by the central bank changing the cost of money.” Business cycles happen often, they are well understood and policymakers are fairly adept at managing them. A debt cycle tends to come along in a country once in a lifetime, tends to be poorly understood and is often mishandled by policymakers.Dalio的经济模式中有两种核心的信贷周期:通常持续5-8年的商业周期和长期的(“长波”)债务周期,后者长达50-70年。一次商业周期一般在经济衰退中结束,因为在经济衰退期,中央会提高利率,以降低贷款和需求。债务周期结束于去杠杆化过程中,此时“缺乏有能力的资金提供者或资金接收者(股权的贷方和卖方),而中央却无法通过改变资金成本来加以调节。”。商业周期时常产生,它们易于理解,也是政策制定者们善于控制的;然而,对某个国家而言,债务周期往往在人一生中只发生一次,所以他们对此不甚了解且往往处理不当。An ordinary recession can be ended by the central bank lowering the interest rate again. A deleveraging is much harder to end. According to Mr Dalio, it usually requires some combination of debt restructurings and write-offs, austerity, wealth transfers from rich to poor and money-printing. A “beautiful deleveraging” is one in which all these elements combine to keep the economy growing at a nominal rate that is higher than the nominal interest rate. (Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: Mr Dalio expects Americas GDP growth to average only 2% over a 15-year period.)中央通过降低利率来解决一般情况下的经济衰退。而去杠杆化远非如此简单,据Dalio称,它通常需要均衡债务重调与销账、财政紧缩、财富由富有阶层到贫困阶层的转移以及钞票印刷之间的关系。所谓“美丽的去杠杆化”是指能综合所有提及的因素从而保持经济的名义增长率高于名义利率。(所说的美丽是在旁观者眼中的:Dalio预期在为期15年的时间里,美国的GDP平均增长率仅为2%)Print too little money and the result is an ugly, deflationary deleveraging (see Greece); print too much and the deleveraging may become inflationary, as in Weimar Germany. Although Mr Dalio says he fears being misunderstood as saying “print a lot of money and everything will be OK, which I dont believe, all deleveragings have ended with the printing of significant amounts of money. But it has to be in balance with other policies.”印制过少货币的结果是“丑陋”的、通货紧缩的去杠杆化(比如希腊);印制过多则会导致类似德国魏玛的通货膨胀的去杠杆化。Dalio说“我并不同意所有去杠杆化都要大量地印制货币,那么只要印制钞票就会万事大吉的观点。但是这(货币的印制)确实需要和其他政策均衡作用”。即使他说自己担心被人误解。Mr Dalio admits to being wrong roughly a third of the time; indeed, he attributes a big part of his success to managing the risk of bad calls. And the years ahead are likely to provide a serious test of whether the economic machine is as simple as he says. For now, he is in a more optimistic mood thanks to the European Central Banks recent moves, in effect, to print money. Although he still expects debt restructuring in Spain, Portugal, Italy and Ireland, on top of that in Greece, he says that the “risk of chaos has been reduced and we are now calming ourselves down.”Heres hoping he is right again.Dalio承认他可能在犯第三次错误,而事实上,他把自己成功的大部分归功于对错误预测的风险的把握上。而且,过去的几年似乎是对他严峻的考验——验经济机器是否同他说的一样简单。就现在来说,因为今日欧洲中央正实行的货币印刷举措,他处于较乐观的心态。即使他仍希望西班牙、葡萄牙、意大利和爱尔兰尤其是希腊的债务重组。他说“混乱的风险已被降低,我们正在逐步安定下来”。这一次,我们希望它仍然是对的。 /201302/226337襄阳樊城区检查妇科病多少钱

襄阳治疗不孕不育要多少钱s-.X;6yDDVyp@1IO7%edjF+MDEThe Osage orange seeds were carried far across the plains,[qh]桑橙种子在平原上被带的很远,[qh]before being deposited, pre-packed in their fertilizer growbags, y to take root.[qh]它们在重新觅得肥沃的居所之前就已经做好了生根发芽的准备F9USLM!FkCnv。[qh]As the ice age waned, the milder climate and the mixed vegetation[qh]伴随着冰河时代的消逝而来的是更加温和的气候和繁多的植被,[qh]meant the plains were able to support a range of wild life as diverse as Africa Serengeti today.[qh]这意味着该平原已经拥有了像今日的塞伦盖蒂平原一样的野生动物承载力lKRcgDGZG#@0w.Tb!。[qh]There were at least five kinds of horse, including a wild ass,[qh]那里生存至少五种马类,包括野驴[qh]and another that resembled modern zebra, and North Americas very own antelope—the pronghorn. [qh]和其他与现代斑马形似的物种,以及北美独有的羚羊和叉角羚D7f4_CA~-~z[[o-B;。[qh]13,000 years ago, several different species roamed the plains.[qh]一万三千年前,这个平原上奔驰着许多不同的物种;Gfe[8W]F(YdAf)Mj。[qh]The pronghorn lived alongside other grazers still around today, including bison.[qh]叉角羚曾经与像今日仍旧存活的野牛那样的其他食草动物共伴而生N9P,3|u+。[qh]This animal was common, too. But now it would seem very out of place.[qh]野牛在过去也很普遍,只是与今日的有很大差别8hfD0K8Z42;。[qh]Bigger than its modern relatives, the ice age camel was extremely hardy,[qh]冰河时代的骆驼也与现代骆驼不同,它们体格较大,[qh]able to eat almost any kind of food.[qh]几乎能吃任何食物~a(_C7MT2IX|k8|。[qh]Elk, like many ice age animals, survive almost unchanged.[qh]和其他冰河时代动物一样,麋鹿几乎没太大变化]w5FKB|wKw。[qh]The rich parkland was ideal for these large deer.[qh]肥美的操场是这些大型鹿类的理想居所IS3xx(DNccQr]Xf]2S。[qh]But one creature more than any other has remained a constant symbol[qh]但有一个物种比该平原在人类驻足之后[qh]of the plain since people first set foot here, the bison.[qh]仍存活至今的其他物种都更具代表性,那就是野牛1o5lN1.lVyw#_j9[4^,N。[qh]Adult bison are formidable, two meters tall and weighing more than a ton.[qh]成年野牛非常健壮,有两米高,体重超过一吨fCO1IQ08Dm~e。[qh]They too sheltered near the trees in winter,[qh]在冬季,他们也藏身于树丛,[qh]taking to the plains again in spring when new grass started sprouting.[qh]在青草再次抽芽的春季重新现身于平原之中+yp!XcNUQtC~.wj。[qh]a~sv@85UgZ,ym|_CRS,ty!l1f@(Q7uD)3xQO#9JJ(@201304/233854襄樊市中心医院治疗阴道炎多少钱 This osprey has a brood to feed and will be back.鹗在这一时期是进食阶段,并且还会回来。Now the otters are here, too.而如今,海獭们也来到这里。She chooses her moment to lead the pups up stream,她选择这一时刻带幼崽们来到上游,then leaves them to watch and give them a lesson in hunting.然后让她们观看,教给它们打猎的技巧。A large trout like this, full of eggs, is a trophy catch.像这样的一条大鳟鱼,而且有完整的卵,完全是唾手可得。注:听力文本来源于普特 201210/204446襄阳市职业病防治医院做流产多少钱

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